Memory Summary AQA Psychology

wmm, msm, eyewitness testimony, cognitive interview, memory improvement

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  • Created by: georginah
  • Created on: 12-04-14 20:00
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Unit content: STM+LTM, multi store model, working memory model, EWT; misleading
information, anxiety and age, cognitive interview & memory improvement strategies.
Capacity 7 +/- 2 Unlimited
Duration Seconds Up to a lifetime
Encoding Mainly acoustic Mainly semantic
Capacity Jacobs (1887)
`immediate digit span' test
PPTs presented with a series of digits (e.g.
3-4-5) and asked to immediately repeat it NO STUDY AVAILABLE
back. Increases by one digit each time. The
length of the longest list the PPT can
remember is their digit span.
Findings: 5-9 digits.
Duration Peterson and Peterson (1959) Bahrick et al. (1975)
PPTs presented with a consonant trigram Tested 392 former high school graduates
(e.g. CXH), then asked to count back in to remember their classmates. Used
threes to prevent rehearsal. After intervals various memory techniques including
of 3-18 sec, PPTS were asked to repeat the pictures, matching names to faces, and
trigrams. doing it with no memory cue.
Findings: 80% could remember after 3 sec, Findings: PPTs performed well up to 32
but only 10% after 18 sec. years, and then began to dip. However this
may have been due to aging effects etc.
Encoding Conrad (1964) Baddeley (1966)
Showed PPTs a random sequence of Asked PPTs to remember lists of words.
consonants projected on a screen. Four conditions: acoustically similar,
Two conditions: letters acoustically similar, acoustically dissimilar, semantically similar
and letters acoustically dissimilar. and semantically dissimilar.
Findings: most PPTs did better in second Findings: words that sounded similar were
condition, showing that short term much harder to remember than the rest.
memory mainly works acoustically.
Most of these studies were laboratory experiments.
Easier control of variables
Easy to replicate
Enable use of complex equipment
Cheaper and less time consuming

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Demand characteristics
Experimenter effects
Low mundane realism
Low ecological validity
MULTI-STORE MODEL OF MEMORY (Atkinson + Schiffrin)
Outline the multi ­store model of memory. (6 marks)
According to the MSM, information flows in a fixed sequence through three separate memory stores:
sensory memory, short term memory, and long term memory. Information enters the sensory memory (via
one of the senses). If attention is paid to this information, it can enter the short term store which can hold
around 7 pieces of information at a time.…read more

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Phonological loop: responsible for acoustic coding.
Articulatory process: inner voice. Allows us to repeat things inside our heads. (active rehearsal system)
Phonological store: inner ear. Decays after 2 seconds unless info is rehearsed. Input comes from ears or
Visuo-Spatial sketchpad: responsible for visual coding.
Inner scribe: allows us to see things inside our heads.
Visual cache: inner eye. Visual and spatial info.…read more

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Refers to the information provided to the police by a person who witnessed a crime
- Is not a very reliable or accurate source of information for the police
Key study: Loftus et al.…read more

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Parker and Carranza (1989) compared primary school children and college students in their ability to correctly
identify a target individual following slides of a mock crime. Children had a higher rate of choosing in an identification
task but also made more errors than the college students
Yarmey (1993) stopped 651 adults in public places and asked them questions about the characteristics of a woman
whom they had spoken to 2 minutes earlier.…read more

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Strategies for Memory
Verbal prompts
1) Acronyms ­ when a word or sentence is formed from the initial letters of other words
2) Acrostic poem ­ a poem or sentence where the first letter in each line or word forms the item that is to be
3) Rhymes ­ words which have corresponding sounds
4) Chunking ­ involves dividing a long string of information into memorable chunks
Visual prompts
1) Method of loci ­ requires the learner to associate the material to be…read more


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