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Unit content: STM+LTM, multi store model, working memory model, EWT; misleading
information, anxiety and age, cognitive interview & memory improvement strategies.
Capacity 7 +/- 2 Unlimited
Duration Seconds Up to a lifetime
Encoding Mainly acoustic Mainly semantic



Capacity Jacobs (1887)
`immediate digit span' test…

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Demand characteristics
Experimenter effects
Low mundane realism
Low ecological validity

MULTI-STORE MODEL OF MEMORY (Atkinson + Schiffrin)

Outline the multi ­store model of memory. (6 marks)

According to the MSM, information flows in a fixed sequence through three separate memory stores:
sensory memory, short term memory, and long term memory.…

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Phonological loop: responsible for acoustic coding.
Articulatory process: inner voice. Allows us to repeat things inside our heads. (active rehearsal system)
Phonological store: inner ear. Decays after 2 seconds unless info is rehearsed. Input comes from ears or
Visuo-Spatial sketchpad: responsible for visual coding.
Inner scribe: allows us to…

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- Refers to the information provided to the police by a person who witnessed a crime
- Is not a very reliable or accurate source of information for the police

Key study: Loftus et al. (1974)
- Showed 45 British school children 7 video clips of traffic accidents
- The…

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Parker and Carranza (1989) compared primary school children and college students in their ability to correctly
identify a target individual following slides of a mock crime. Children had a higher rate of choosing in an identification
task but also made more errors than the college students

Yarmey (1993) stopped 651…

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Strategies for Memory
Verbal prompts

1) Acronyms ­ when a word or sentence is formed from the initial letters of other words
2) Acrostic poem ­ a poem or sentence where the first letter in each line or word forms the item that is to be
3) Rhymes…


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