War of the Roses
1453 to 1487
Red Rose of Lancashire vs White Rose of Yorkshire.
Richards usurpation of the Throne.
April 1483 - Edward IV dies. Leaving two Princes Edward and Richard (Woodville blood).
Richard duke of Gloucester (Edward IV brother) took control of King Edward V so the Woodvilles could not take control. With help from Henry Duke Of Buckingham.
June - Richard declares Edward IV as illegitimate. Declaring his sons two illegitimate little bastards. PUTS THE IM THE TOWER :D
June 26th - Richard III is crowned.
Buckingham had a claim to the throne.
Henry Tudor Causing Problems for Richard.
Henry is exiled in feudatory Britanny.
Richard sends embassador to Duke Francis to release retrainsts of Henry and Jasper so don't go to france. Francis does so and uses Heney as a pawn with Richard. He demands 4000 eng. archers. But Francis also helps Henry in Buckhinghams rebellion.
Christmas day 1483 - promises to marry Elizabeth Woodville of York. daughter of Edward IV, bringing houses together.
Richard tries to put pressure on Pierre Landais ( Francis' steward) , and he negociates deal where Henry will be placed under house arrestif he gets 1000 archers. Henry gets warning from his Mother and flee's to France.
31st July 1483 - Henry sets sail from Har Fleur, France with ship sand soldiers from Charles King Of France.
How Henry Became King.
Henry promised Charles VIII if he became king he would be an ally to France and help them take back Brittany. This is why he helped. Charles promised 40 000 Livres and a few thousand of his best troops. (although some historians say he didnt recieve money and had to pawn own wealth, also only got 'franc-archers' part time ones from Brittany). Henry leaves with 500 own supporters and 1500 mercaneries and ships from Charles.
Richard was in Nottingham and relied on Rhys Ap Thomas to defend Wales area. But he Defects to Henry. Henry goes through middle of Wales as Richards supporters were in the South, enters England in Shrewsbury.
Richard moves to leister and the two forces face off at Bosworth 22nd of August 1483.
The Duke Of Norfolks forces fight the Duke of Oxfords, and THe Stanleys join Henrys side and tip the balance, Richard tries a last ditch chage down the hill at Henry but is killed. Henry becomes King.
Securing the crown
1. Legitimisation - Dates from Bosworth, Act of Attainders for those who fought against him. official explanation : Richard was illigitimate King. Crowned on 30th of October. 7th of November Parliment announce Henry is king through Diviine right.
2. Dealing with Opponents - Earl of Warwick is put in tower as he is threat to throne .Henry is quite leiniant though. on 11th of October issued general pardon to enemies at Bosworth. Duke of Norfolk swears loyalty and is set free. Earl of Northumberland and Earl of Surrey but in tower until 1485 and 1489. Richard left throne to John De La Pole Earl of Lincoln, so Hnery invites him on privy council.
3. Dynasty - Henry goes to Pope for permission to marry Elizabeth as they are related, they marry on 18th of June 1486
4. Rewarding supporters - Uncle Jasper becomes Duke of Bedford and Henry goes on royal progress around country.
Henry and Spain.
in 1488 Henry suggested marriage between his son Arthur and Ferdinand and Isabella's dauther Catherin of Aragon when they come of age.
March 1489 - The Treaty of Medina Del Campo. Spain got : 1. Aid from England if at war, 2. Help from England to recover Cerdagne and Rousillon England got : 1. A large dowry 2. No Spanish help for English rebels (Warbeck) 3. Help to recover Normandy and Aquitaine 4. Spanish aid with a war with France.
In 1493 France gave Spain back Cerdagne and Rousillon so they could focus on Italy. In 1495 a league was formed to keep France out of Italy : The Holy League, England wasn't included. To keep Henry on side Ferdinand offerned him help in securing Warbeck. Oct. 1496 futher agreement about Arthur/Cath marriage and England finally join Holy League under condition he didn't have to go to war with France.
14th Nov 1501 Arthur and Catherine marry in St. Pauls cathedral, with dowry of 100000 Ducats. but April 1502 Arthur dies, but within five weeks marriage with brother Henry (VIII) are settled although permission from pope doesn't come until 1504.
Henry and Spain Pt. 2 ( marriage stuff)
In Febuary 1503 Queen Elizabeth dies and Henry consider marriage to Joanna of Naples, Margaret of Savoy and later Joanna of Castille and Burgundy. But Situation was complicated when in 1504 Isabella dies, leaving Ferdinand also looking for a new wife.
Joanne was heir to her mothers Kingdom of Castille and she was pursuaded by her first husband Phillip of Burgundy to take up the inheritance, but it split up Spain's kingdom. Burgundy and Spain were now rivals with Henry keeping treade links with Burg. and Spains dowry. in 1506 Phillip had to seek shelter in England, he was well recieved by Henry but was made to sign agreements on Trade, the marriage of Henry to Margaret of Savoy ( his sister) and them to throw Edmund De La Pole out of their territory. Feeling isolated Ferdinand marries Lois XII's niece Germaine de Foix in 1505.
in Sept. 1506 Phillip dies and Joanna goes mad. giving Ferdinand an oppurtunity to take back Castille. while Marg. of Savoy acted as regent for Archduke Charles Henry felt Burgundy was open for France to take so he tried to retore alligience with Spain. Ferdinand had Castille back and an alliance with France, and he refused Henry's claim for Joanna of castiles hand in marriage aswell not sending anymore Dowry.
Henry tried to unite, Burgundy and France against Spain, new trade treaties were agreed with Burg. and it was arranged for Archduke Charles to marry his daughter Mary( 1507). In 1508 The League of Cambrai was formed for crusade against the turks but in reality an anti-spanish alliance. but at the last minute Louis leaves not wanting to risk agreement with Spain and Ferdinand joins, leaving it pointless. and Henry in the cold.
Henry and France
they were trade rivals and had previously fought the hundred years war 1337 to 1453, They both also want Brittany. He felt he owed Charles for helping him so he made a one year peace truce which was ultimately extended until 1489.
October 1491- Henry reasserts himself as the rightful King of France. ( Chrimes says he wanted paying off and rid of Warbeck). Curin says Henry had bigger plans and he hoped for a swift campaign but his obejective seemed to be normandy as his troops were gathered in Porstmouth, he also had coins minted with the Rose and arms of France. he only moved his attack to calais after French intelligence found him out.
Summer 1491 - Henry collects forced loan and gets two subsardies with Parlimentary Grants. 1492 - Henry landed in Bologne (FRANCE) with 26 000 troops, Charles was more interested in Italian Glory so after 9 days offered peace.
3 Nov. 1493 - Treaty of Etaples signed, £5000 a year pension. he also secured denial for Warbeck, Increase in income (Pension), cemented alliance with Spain and established international presence.
Henry and Scotland
Summer 1486 - The scots attack and capture the englsih occupied dunbar, Henry makes no attempt to save it. James III wanted an english wife so a 3 year truce was agreed in july 1486, but June 1488 James is killed in civil war. James former supporters given refuge prompting yorkist being given refuge after battle of stoke 1487. The new king James IV regent Patrick Hepburn was not interested in an english bride and was restablishing links with France. Jan 1489 Henry supplies aid for rebellion against Hepburn, although limited as Scales was with troops in Brittany and there were tax riots in the north. The Rebellion failed but while Hepburn was in Frane , Henry made an agreement with the Earl of Angus to attack anyone ho opposed peace with England. By Jan 1492 Angus had 'ousted' Hepburn and a nine year truce was agreed upon.
But when James IV come of age , he is eager for glory and in 1495 arranges Warbeck to marry his sister Lady Katherine and help invade England if he is reimbursed for costs and gets Berwick back. Sept 1496 they invade but have no support from nobles, and have 1400 men they flee when they hear of engish army. Oct 1496 Great Council funds war against Scotland, confirmed by parliment in 1497 with 2 15ths and 10ths plus a subsardy, in June a rebellion breaks out in cornwall, diverting Henrys troops. James trys to invade during rebellion but is chased away by Earl of Surrey. Sept 1497 Treaty of Ayton ends hostilities, Warbeck leaves scotland before it si signed. He is eventaully captured and exucuted in 1499, paving way for Perpetual peace of feb 1502 : this extends Ayton and arranged marriages of James to Henry's eldest daughter Margaret ( Aug 1503). Treaty didn't end Franco-Scottish alliance, as James builds warships with French aid and their are skirmishes on the border ( sit robert kerr killed by John the ******* heron)
Henry and Brittany
Semi independenet, run by Duke Francis, Frances king Charles VIII is a minor so his mother Anne Beaujeau is running it. Shes Plans marriage between Charles and Francis' daughter Anne of Brittany. Unpopular choice so in 1486 Francis agrees to marry Anne to the Holy Roman Emporer. 1488 France attack Brittany. The HRE sends 15 000 soldiers and the King of Aragon sends 1000, Henry doesn't know who to help.
Henry allows Lord Scales to gather 'voulunteers' to help Brittany and offers to act as a mediator. But Franic is not interested do Henry renews peace treaty with France and dissowns Scales. July 1488 the Brittans are beaten at St. Aubia de Comier. They are forced to marry Anne to Charles. 3 weeks later Franis dies and Anne inherit's Brittany and Anne Beaujeau so Henry has to interfere.
Henry signs three treaties. 1. Renews alliance with the HRE 2. 1489 Treaty of Medina Del Campo 3. Treaty if Redon with Brittany. Under the treaty of Redon Henry allows Br. to pay for 6000 archers and they arrive in June 1489. In June 1490 Anne is married to the HRE through proxy. But the military situation in Brittan collapses in Dec 1491 and Anne must marry Charles.
Richard Symonds - a priest in oxford, Trains Simnel to act as Warwick and become king he wanted financial reward
John De La Pole - has a claim to throne more likely to become king, has inside info fomr privy council
Margeret of Burgundy - Pays for troops, she makes Simnel credible as she is Richard and Edwards sister
Gerald FitzGerald - Earl of Kildare or unofficial king of Ireland : upset with Henrys refusal to give him power in Ireland
Francis Lord Lovell : One of Richards closest allies , Yorkist. Martin Schwarz : head of best german mercanaries. Thomas Geraldine : Irish leader of Troops.
Henry, Burgundy and the Holy Roman Empire
Jan 1487 Henry signs a one year truce with Maximillian - heir to the HRE, Burgundy had been a traditional allie of ENgland based on trade. But the Dowager Duchess of Burgundy was the sister of Edward IV so during Simnels rebellion she provided 2000 troops for the rebel with support from the HRE. after the war with France, Warbeck was recieving aid from Margaret of burg, but Maximillian also desire to keep England at war with France and a yorkist king restored with habspurg aid.
in 1493 Maximillian became the HRE and his son Phillip became governer of the netherlands. Henry told him that Margaret was habouring an imposter but he ignored as Max. was angry with Henry for having peace with France. When Henry Heard Burgundy had provided 1500 troops for Warbeck he banned their merchants and move his trade from antwerp to calais. 1495 Warbeck left Burg. and in 1496 the Magnus Intercursus was signed between them and Henry which aimed to remove their trade barriers. the HRE continued to support rebels ( Edmund D.L.P 1501) as Henry hadn't joined The League of Venice against France and his lukewarm response to the Holy League.
HRE and Burg. use Pole as blackmail, who pays over 260000 in loans that werent payed between 1505 and 1509. Jan. 1506 dorve Phillip into Henrys ports. Henry agreed to recognise Phillip as King of Castile and to marry his sister Margaret of Savoy if he handed over Pole - Feb 1506 The Treaty of Windsor. a new trade treatie was also tried the Malus Intercursus, but it was so unfavourable to Phillip it was never ratified and Marg. refused to marry, it entirely collapsed in 1506 when Phillip died. In an attempt to isolate Spain they returned to the Magnus intercursus and 1507 the underage Archuduke of Burg. would agree to marry Mary.
Perkin Warbeck 1491-1499
Warbeck was from Tournai France, and arrived in Cork in 1491, it was rumored he was the Earl of Warwick. He claimed he was Richard of York, Youngest son of Edward IV. (Prof. Chrimes says he was a pawn of CHarles VIII to use as a lever). 1492 Yorkist supporters joined him in Paris, although Treaty of Etaples meant he had to move to Flanders, where the Dowager Duchess Margeret acknowledged him as his newphew.( Polydore Virgil states one of Henry's prime motivations for invading France was Warbeck)
Henry placed an embargo on Burgundy's cheif port and moved trade to Antwerp. 1494 the New HRE Maximillian acknowledged his as Richard IV. Max. didn't have the the resources for an invasion and the French were invading Italy, Henry was lucky. 1495 Henry moved against the cheif plotters using spies, SIr William Stanley may have been working with Marg of Burgundy, he and another plotter Fitzwater were beheaded. (Pickering suggest Stanleys death may have just been a warning). This helped when Warbeck attempted to land in Norfolk and landed in Kent but gatheres little support.
Warbeck then travelled to Ireland, where Earl of Desmond was in revolt against Henry, he unsuccsessfully laid siege to Waterford and left to Scotland where he got refuge from James IV. James arranges for Warbeck to marry Lady Katherine: his cousin, and a pension of £1200 a year from him. Henry was under Pressure from alliances, Ferdinand and Isabella didn't want their daughter marrying to a contested crown. James agree's to invade England with Warbeck if he is reimbursed costs and Berwick. Invasion happens in 1496 but consists of 1400 men and no support from nobles. Lord Letimer leads Englsih army and their pused back to Scotland.
Warbeck has to leave in 1497 after Henry and James sign the Treaty of Ayton. He sailed back to COrk looking for help from the Earl of Kildale, but he was loyal to Henry. So he set sail to Cornwall hoping to capitalised on th recent rebellion. He was driven out of Exeter after gaining no support and he fled to Hampshire. in August he was pursuaded to surrender as he was a foreigner he coulnd't be charged of treason, so Henry let him live at court. He was hung after trying to escape with Warwick(who was beheaded).
Edmund De La Pole (The White Rose)
With the death of Warwick and Warbeck in 1499 De La Pole was passed the Yorkist claim, but he was not a pretender . He was the Brother of John De La Pole, ex Earl of Lincoln. Claim was he is Edward and Richards newphew and Richard seemingly left throne to his brother. Henry was weary of im and only made him Duke of Suffolk instead of Earl.
July 1499 De La Pole flee's to a town near Calais, after others are killed. Henry pursuades him to come home. in 1501 he flee's again with his brother Richard to the HRE. Two of Henry's sons had died and his last was ill so his chance was increasing. in 1504 Parliment attainded 51 people , largest number attinded in reign. Sir James Tyrell one time constable of the tower said he killed the Princes meaning there could be no more Pretenders. 1506 Phillip of Burgundy crashes in England and has to agrre to hand Pole over. Pole is kept in tower until 1513 until he is killed. The Yorkist claim switches to Richard De La Pole who attracts little support and is killed in1525 at the Battle of Pavia
Financial Protest. Episodic taxing in those days. The North didn't like it because they felt their duty in war was to protect from Scottish and they hadn't payed taxes before, Henry was Taxing a Subsardy which was unusual and unpopular.
Henry was supposed to collect 100000 pounds he only got 27000 pounds. (Polydore Virgil said it was also due to Factionalism and the Yorkist struggle). Rebellion begins in 1489, Henry Percy - The Earl of Northumberland trys to negociate but Henry ignores. When he returns home he is murdered. May have been Sir John Egermont, Illegitimate memeber of Percys who hated them. Meanwhile the Rebels marched to York but were deafeated by a Royal Force led by The Earl Of Surrey.
Extra : The Earl of Surrey had chance to escpa e during Simnel rebellion but he didn't sso Henry put him in charge of North. This was the 3rd rebellion in 4 years and showed Henry couldnt tax his own people, he should have made a deal with Nthmberland and taxed more familiarly.
Cornish Rebellion : 1497
1489 - England were at war with Scotland, In Jan Parliment decides Henry can collect taxes in the form of two 15ths and 10ths. They also agreed a subsardy could be collected, The North disagreed with this an refused to pay.
This happens again in 1497 in Cornwall. One of the leaders of the Rebellion, lawyer Flamank, said it was about taxes. Henry hadn't learned from the Northern Rebellion, but after this rebellion he longer uses Subsardy's. The Cornish object to paying as the war was in the North (Scotland).
May - Rebels gather on Bodruin mooor and they appoint Lord Audley as their leader, an impoverished noble, Flamank is also appointed. They march towards London and fight a small engagement on the 13th of June at guilford in Surrey. on the 16th of June they fight the battle of Blackheath on the outskirts of London with Davbenney in charge of royal forces. Rebels loose and a 1000 of their 1500 die. Audley is beaheaded while Flamank is hung,drawn and quartered. In fear of creating another rebellion Henry sends surviving rebels back to Cornwall. Warbeck tries to capitalise but fails.
Henry's Ordinary Income.
Profits of Justice - When people pay court fines it goes to Henry, as the King has the right to hear any legal case in the country. Their wern't many prisons so there was lots of fining.
Crownlands - Money from kings land, The Resumption act takes Henrys lands back. in 1485 Henry made £650 but in 1509 it was £6500 this was due to efficient ideas and workers
Fuedal Dues - Payments that came from relationship with the nobility. Scutage: Nobles gave money instead of troops. Wardship: Heir to a postion, Can't harness it so person pays to take charge of him, Can make money from the Ward. in 1497 Henry made £350 but in 1509 he made £6000. This was due to Henry created a poistion which sorted out Wards.
Tonnage and Poundage - Customs duties including trading taxes. The percentage of Henrys income from it goes down due to other incomes succses. The Book of Rates had the rules but Henry changed them because they were really old. Merchants imports wine and exports Wool and Cloth, Henry made English merchants have a marked certifcate when it comes from own country as it was cheaper to trade in own country.
Henrys Extraordinary income.
Bonds and Recognisances - similar to Profits of Justice, The Bond was derived from work of the Privy Council, while the Recog's were from the leagal system. Can either be charged as an upfront payment or a 'threat' promised payment. They can be placed on people for things they haven't done yet, trying to stop them from doing it. Empson and Dudley worked for Henry and increased use of them. Ex. The Captain of Calais had to pay £40000 if Calais were captured. in 1493: £30000 a year, 1505 made £35000 a year.
Fuedal Obligations - Payments Nobles had to make due to relationship with the King, One-off's. In 1504 Prince Henry was knighted, Henry collected £30 000, he also collected when his eldest daughter got married in 1502. Some people tried to dodge, called a distraint of Knighthood. People with high income were knighted.
Parlimentary Grants - Taxes: irregular. only in situations of National security. In 1487 with Simnel, 1489 War with France and in 1496 with Warbeck. 15th's and 10th's: tax on moveable wealth, 15th of wealth in country and a 10th in towns. Subsardy's were like we are taxed today, they were unusual.
Benevolences - Forced loan from the Nobility. The royal commision assesed how much people should loan the king. 1475: when Edward IV planned to invade France. 1491 Henry planned to invade France , got £48500. 'Voluntary'but not really.
Clerical Taxes - Chruch taxes. Raised £25000 pounds in 1489 for the war with France. Simoney was selling a position in the church. Henry sold the ArchDeconary of Buckingham for £300. the King was also entitled to a Bishops wages from when he died while the position was vacant. First Fruits were when Henry got a Bishops wages for the whole of his first year. Henry made about £6000 a year.
French Pension - Pension is a regular payment thats not a wage. The King of France pays £5000 a year due to agreement at the Treaty of Etaples.
Apparently in a state of decline, but maybe an overstatement. About 850 monastaries and nunnuries in ENgland. Chruch owns about a 3rd of Englsih land.
Incomes. 1.The Tithe : Tax payed every year peeople are supposed to pay a 10th of their wealth to the church 2. Voluntary Donations : Saints day donations, The Paschel Candle that burns through Easter, People Contributed towards it, Brewed Beer for Saints day. 3. Glebe : People renting of farming Church lands. 4.Bequests : Mortuary payments(payments for Tithe missed in their lifes0, People left money to church in their wills, leaves it to the Chantry to pay off time in Purgatory with Masses. 5. The Cess : Chancel seperated from the rest of church by the roadscreen, The Nave was were people sat and the the Cess is the tax to maintain the Nave, steeple, tower etc. any part of Church that was the Chancel.
Things Popular in Religion: Blessing the Plow - Come from Pagan rituals. Witchunting. Fashion - Henry brings back two saints from Brittany Saint Amielle and Vincent who were popular until Henry dies.
Humansim - Inspired by Philosopher Desiderus Erasmus. The Catholic Church believes you must live your life making up for your Original SIn you are born with while Humansim rejects and says people have freewill. They didn't believe attending Church got you into Heaven and it was about being a good person. They also beleived you mst study the original Bible as the Church practiced things that were not in it. A Famous Humanist was Thomas Moore who was responsible for Henry VIII's education.
Pre-Reformation Church Pt.2
Transubstantiation - the process of the Priest Blessing the Bread and the Wine and it actually turning into the Blood and Body of Christ. Humanists Challenge this: Richard Fox, Bishop of Winchester payed for lectures in Aincient Greek ( to understand original Bible) while John Collett, Dean of St.Pauls, Who had worked with Erasmus in 1499 studies Original texts. This was a Benefice, a position in the church were the Church pays you to Research.
Lollardy - they were 'Heretics' who actually said the Church was Wrong. John Whycliffe was a dollower actice in the 14th Century he was a scholar at Oxford. By Henrys time the Lollards are small and underground. They denied Transubstantiation and attacked the wealth of the Church calling them " fat COws" and the Pope " the Limb of Lucifer". Whycliffe translated the first English bible in 300 years. This was Heretic because Catholics were worried it would be altered. Known Lollards had to wear a symobol of a yellow Faggott. During Henrys Reign 70 people were tried for Heracy , while only 3 were burnt one was a Priest who Henry Henry Personally tried to make Recant.
During Henry VIII's Reign, Thomas Wolsey was in charge of the Church, The attacks on Heretics decline. in 1521 Bishop Longland rounded up between 3 to 4000 of them and only 4 were executed, This was because Wolsey removes Trials for Herecy from the Diocesean Consistances, Courts run by Bishops and the Church, Meant fewer people were Convicted. The Courts also did everything they could to pursuade everyone to Recant, and if they did they were normally dismissed.
Church Administration and Monks and Nuns
Their were about 9000 Parishes in England but about 1/4 of them didn't have a resident Priest. This was due to Benifice incomes, although their were about 30 000 priest in England at the time. This was called Puralism when people had more that one position in the Church(Bishoprics) . The Curate would be payed a small wage to look after the vancant parishes which were all called Non- residents. Richard Fox started off as the Bishop of Exeter and then later Bath and Wells, but he never set foot in either Cathedral. This was because he was also the Lord Privy Seal , one of Henry's top Councillers, this kept him away from his Bishopric's but he kept the wages.
Technically the Pope chooses Bishops but in reality it was the King. Most Bishopric's payed about £1000 a year. Bishops were collectively known as the Episcopacy. Becoming a Bishop was normally a reward for loyal service. Only 33 Bishops were made in Henry's reign 15 had degree inLaw while 8 had one in Theology. They preferred degrees in civil Lawrather than Canon Law( Church law). John Morton Becomes ArchBishop of Canturbury he is a doctor in Civil Law, Henry preferred Cicil Law as it Helped run the country
Monastaries and Nunnuries - in 1487 Henry asked Pope for help reforming Religious Order. When these grouping had been set up rules for Monks had been very strict and had lately been relaxed, Henry wanted to re-enforce. Archbishop of C, John Morton enforces the reform. Henry was favourable to a group called the Franciscan Oberserver's who were Hardcore and worshipped St.Francis of Asissi. In his reform Henry turns 3 Monastaries into Obeserver ones. IN 1501 they secured houses for Observers in Richmond Palace, When Henry dies in 1509, he leaves several hundred pounds to each house.
England and the Papacy
The Papacy were areas controlled by the Pope in Italy. Henry was careful to maintain good relations with the Pope, and got his support when he invaded England in 1485. Henry Relies on John Morton for Pope Relations. He secures a Papal Dispensation to marry Elizabeth of York, as they were related. pope at the time was Innocence VII. Henry Promised the Pope Financial backing with crusades against the Turks from 1489 when Pope doesn't recieve the money their relationship cools. In 1492 when Henry asks for creation of a Cardinal Protector who acts in Englands interests at the Papal Sea ( Papal court). A Cardinal is below the pope but above and ArchBishop, they help elect the Pope. The Cardinal Protector would help control the English Church, and look over the Episcopacy. In 1487 Henry agree's with the Pope that Sanctuary is unavaidiable if you commit Treason, Passed through his Papal Bull (seal).
Sean Cunningham, suggests Henry is trying to reduce the power of the Church in England because 1. The Court of Chancery took over the power to deal with Church courts and the Church of Chancery, 2. Henry uses laws of Praeimunirie which said you couldn't appeal to power outside England in Court Cases, thinking of Roman Church Courts. Its says where their is an overlap between laws of the Church and Civil Courts. Civil Courts are dominant. 3. Increasing Number of Bonds and Recognisnaces used against the Clergy.
Henry VIII cultivated strong links with the Church . In 1511 he helped create the Holy League,but still trying to make Civil have presence over Church courts. In 1515 there is an argument of Benefit of the CLergy,. Henry argues while their was a contridiction between English and Church laws, English took Presence, Wolsey formally begged the Church as the case had gone to Rome. Henry says " Kings in Engaldn in pastimes never had any superior but God alone".
Complaints against the Church
In 1511 Collett gave a sermon on the convication of the church and identifies the common complaints .
1. Ambition - (Pluralism and Non-residence). Between 1514 and 1520 in the diocese of London about 20% didn't have a resident Priest, they were run by curate. Simoney was also a complaint, were people payed for a position in church.
2. Carnal and moral laxity - Numbers of the Clergy were immoral, although they were small they gathered attention. In St.Paul Zacahry there was a brothel dedicated to members of the Clergy and Priests sometimes had 'Harth companions' which were unofficial wives. Archbishop Warham did an investigation into them which he found 11 HC's in 266 Parishes In 1485 parliment had passed a legislation against sexual offences of the Clergy.
3. Covetousness - Combination of Envy and Greed. Collett said it made the clergy uncharitable. In 1511 when Richard Hunne's son died and he refused the burial fee he was charged with Herecy and put in church prison In dec 1514 he was found hanged in his cell. in the inquest he was found to be killed by a member of the church but he got away with it due to 'Benefit of the Clergy' - if you were a member of the church you could be tried at a church court whihc was less harsh and couldnt draw blood, you could use the Neckverse to get away with it. Covetousness included the Tithe and mortuary payments.
4. Church involvement in Secular world - In 1506 James Stanley was made Bishop of Ely to move him away from his northern power base, despite the fact he had 3 illigitimate kids and the largest retaining fine.BUT Historian Harper-Bill said 1. Most attacks on the CHurch were directed at Wolsey. 2. When Bishops carried out visitation there was little complaints about the clergy. 3. Merchants payed more mortuary payments as they had more moveable wealth. 4. very few disputes about mortuary payments between 1519 and 1529. 5. Tithe disputes were uncommon 6. There was only normally complaints about how the Tithe would be spent. 7. Normally complaints against Clergy was due to their age or health not immorality or teachings. Church may not have been as bad as seemed.
Henry VIII's Government
Henry's biggest change was his reliance on his advisors e.g Wolsey. The Privy Council was also less important accent, Most important peope in HenryVII's reign were kept on but Sidelined like Bishop Fox while others weren't like John Heron Treasurer of the Chamber.
Small Changes in Structure - In 1510 Henry abolished the ' Surveyor of the Kings Perogative' to seperate himself from his father. in 1511 two General Surveyors of land were appointed to do pretty much jobs that Henry VII did like look over accounts. In the first list of the Privy council their were 21 members and they sometimes met at Wlsey's palaces, so Henry complained he didn't have e nough advisors. In response Wolsey wrote up the Elfdom Ordances, officialy it was so Henry had at least two advisors around him at all times but it also have Wolsey power to appoint servants in the Privy Chamber. Pro Camera Stella became more important, with Wolsey hearing many cases himself. Although many cases were for the Poor, but he used the court and cases to attack Noble political opponents. IN 1525-26 some powers were delagated to the councils of the North and Wales to help deal with rebels.
Overall his government was pretty similar to Henrys apart from his reliance on Wolsey and his attempts to sitance himself from his father.
The Administration of Henry's Finances.
The Exchequer - A system that ran Royal finances by employing its own officials. Henry was Sub-contracting Financial management. It kept accurate accounts, but it is now considered to be slown and less efficient than the Chamber. In 1505 Henry developed the Declaration of the State of the Treasury which was an all new list of monry coming in and out. It began to becom eless important in 1487 due to a need for a more efficient system in the Simnel rebellion. From 1493 the Exchequer lost its role in accounting revenue from the crownlands. Instead, it was looked over by a counsel commitee meeting sitting in Chamber to be known as the Court of th General Surveyors. They took a bond to the king which resulted in increased revenue from crownlands dur to thorough investigation and careful supervision. They also checked over accounts, Henry got idea from Duchy of Lancaster.
The Chamber - A system used by previous Kings. The financial system was under complete supervision of the King. It had collapsed under the Yorkist dynasty, and Henry lacked the experience to reconstruct it straight-away.
Assingment - Notes given from the King (Cheques). You collected your money from the Customs. It was inefficient as The kings money was never all together, couldn't be counted or put in reserve. Between, 1460 and 1485 28% of the Kings wealth was held centrally.
Privy chamber accounts - They were managed by Henrys most trusted servants , The Groom of the Stool was in charge of the accounts. Became more important as means to pay for secret payments.
The Kings Great Matter
Annulment from Catherine of Aragon. The first time the anullment was mentioned was in 1520 after her second failed pregnancy. In 1524 Henry's physicians told him she was unlikely to concieve he was grooming his illigitimate son Henry Fitzroy by making him Duke of Richmond, it was unlikely he was planning an anullment. Henry most likely decided in 1527 when he became infactuated with Anne Bolyn and Henry began to think his marriage was immoral. by 1528 Henry was talking publically about immorality of the marriage, due to a section in Leviticus 20:16 saying that one should not take his brothers wife. Catherine claimed Wolsey drew attention to it, ut Henry was a good biblical scholar and had written 'Asserto, Septum, Sacramentorum' which the Pope had given him the title of Defender of Faith after Martin Luther had attacked Catholic values.
Henry and Wolsey though Anullment would be easy, as Wolsey had Papal positions, they were on good terms and annulments weren't uncommon. Problem was in 1527 Chalres V's rouge army sacked Rome and took Pope 'hostage' and Catherine was Charles aunt. Henry layed the blame on Wolsey so he had a plan. 1. Use reason and diplomatic pressure, but he would have to say a previous Pope was wrong, so he got theologians to write books supporting his views. Although John Fisher Bishop of Rochester wrote books against and was killed. 2. try to make the dispensation for marriage look like a clerical error. but the only copy of the dispensation was in Spain and Charles didn't let it leave the country. 3. pursaude the pope the case should be heard under Wolsey. Wolsey was Cardinal Legate, but fine print in his role said WOlsey could hear the case but the Pope made the final decsion. The Pope agreed in 1528 but under the terms that Cardinal Campeggio would also hear the case. Wolsey thought Campeggio would be helpful as he had worked with him at the Treaty of London and given him a bishopric. But he was old and ill and not looking for rewards or bribery because of this. When he arrived in Dec. 1528 he insisted on doing everything by the book, and in summer 1529 he insists a recess. DUring the recess the case is called back to Rome. Henry looses faith in Wolsey and Anne Bolyn says he never wanted anullment, the Boyln's felt neglected by Wolsey and wanted him out of power. In October 1529 WOlsey is removed from power and arrested.
Henry VIII and Taxation
In 1513 a Subsardy and 15th and 10th were levied and much like the Northern Rebellion in 1497 many people passively resisted some ares not making their final returns until 1515. In 1523 Wolsey put before parliment demands for £800 000 to pursue Henry's continental ambitions. Their were complaints about the amount and the Subsardy was collected over four years being much less than desired £ 151 125. Although by 1525 it was the biggest tax ever. It was termed the Amicable Grant.
The grant was designed to capitalise on the French defeat at Pavia. It was to be 1/6 of moveable goodsand 1/3 of the clergys. This time the South played a more important role in resisting paying. By April Warham reported the Kentish CLergy wouldn't pay and Ely and Norwich said they coulnd't afford it. Resistance was also to do with the disquiet over Foreign policy, Warham said people regretted Henry capturing the king of France and his wars had not amounted in territorial gain and if Henry got france he would spend more time their.
By the End of April Warwickshire had been granted exemption while there was disquiet in Norfolk, berkshire, wiltshire and Kent. Wolsey told councillers that he would take whatvever was given, when this was heard attitudes hardened. Over 4000 men faced down the Duke of Norfolk and Suffolk at Lavenham Suffolk. The ringleaders were called before the Great Council were Henry backed down and they were pardoned by the Star Chamber. In Henrys reign the country payed £282 000 in Tax.
Councillers had a high status, postion could be used as a reward. Advised King on war, finance and foreign affairs. 21 of Henrys counciller had been under Richard and Edward. Some had been 'inherited' while other had been in exile with Henry ( John Morton). Consisted of Nobles, Churchmen, and some middle classes like Lawyers. Their were tempory members which advised on certain subjects. 227 memebers in total in Henrys reign, while the most in court at a time was 150. 40 never seemed to attend. Usual number of attendence was 7 biggest about 65. the Council could also sit as a court and hear cases. It could delegate some of its power to induviduals.
Henry's Early Foreign policy 1509-1516
Wolsey was not appointed until 1514 so the 'early years' can be viewed as Henrys own.
Henry seemed more interested in National Presence than Military glory and realised he needed allies. the HRE was already in dispute with France over Milan and made his desire to Marry Cathrine of Aragon clear to re-affirm Spanish aid (1509). With intent to restart the Hundred Years War. However he had to deal with a peace party at home, Warham and Fox were against it and found difficult to manoevre and ended up renewing the Treaty of Etaples in 1510, this was why Henry started relying on his own men like Wolsey.
In 1511 Henry dispatched Archbishop Bainbridge of York to Italy to encourage the Venetians and Papacy to allie against the French. In response French Louis XII called a Church council meeting at pisa. this enabled the Pope to say Louis was working as a different faction and created the Holy League against them which helped Henry overcome Warham and Fox. In November England and Spain both joined. Henry struggled with the Reliability of his allies, as soon as Henry tried to create and anti-French league France would pay off potential allies. But in 1512 Henry agreed with Ferdinand to attack Aquitaine, Henry sent forces to Spain but Ferdinand wa smore interested in the Pyranees and Navarre and used threats of English invasion in France to divert attention away from his plans. The English returned in failure. In 1513 Henry was determined to attack to area around Pas de Calais which was close to England if his allies proved unreliable, the alliance of 1513 between England, HRE, Papacy, and Spain (Holy League) was weakened in the desertion of Spain. The organisation of the campaign was left to Wolsey and England invaded in June capturing Tournai and Therouanne and won 'the battle of the spurs' which was only really a skirmish
Born 1472 in Ipswich son of a Butcher. Graduates from Oxford in 1487 and becomes its ordaned priest in 1498 but is kicked out for overspending in 1500. He makes connections with the Marquis of Dorset and becomes a chaplain around influential households, until he becomes a permanent one under the Deputy of Calais. He becomes one of Richard Fox's protoge's as a fixer and observes court politics. He secures international contacts. In 1511 he joins the Privvy counciland the Dean of Windsor and later Lincoln and Hereford. . he first gets Henrys attention after ruthlessley organising the campaign in France and does what he believes the king wants him to. By mid 1514 he is relied on by Henry. Wolsey never becomes ArchBishop of Caturbry as position is held by Warham who hates him. but he does get no.2 position Archbishop of York and in 1515 Henry leans on Warhm to resign as Lord Chancellor so Wolsey can become it. He becomes a Cardinal under Pope Leo X which makes him more important thatn Warham. In 1518 he becomes The Papal Legate which meant he could act as the pope in England, Henry helps him get the position for life. Henry supports this because his credibility rises if his chief advisor is crdinal and Papal Legate and Church positions cost him nothing.
Positions : 1513 - Bishop of Tournai, Dean of york. 1514- Bishop of Lincoln, Archbishop of York. 1515 - Cardinal, Lord Chancellor. 1516 - Lor Privy Seal (Fox Resigned) 1518 - Papal Legate. 1523 - Prince Bishop of Durham. 1529 - Bishop of Winchester (richest in country)
Henry's Early Foreign policy 1509-1516 Pt.2
Meanwhile Sept. 1513 the Scots were soundly defeated by the Earl of Surrey at Flodden the Auld alliance having brought the Scots to war. This battle was more significant than the campaign in France as it resulted in the Death of James V, removing the threat of Scotland for years. Surrey become Norfolk finally.
Henry ended 1513 on a high but had been deserted by allies and had spent 2 million left by Henry VII so he was unable to wage war in 1514 and seeked terms with France. Henry got to continue French pension and keep Tournai and Thero. But he had to marry his sister Mary to Louis, using up the only diplomatic asset he had ( she runs off with Suffolk). The Campaign was not the succsess Henry wished for. Louis died shortly after and new king Francis allows Mary to marry Suffolk, this gives France a diplomatic victory as it shows Henry to be weak, it deorives use of Mary for further diplomatic use and lastly it was a personal betrayal from Suffolk.
The siuation in Spain changed in 1516 when Ferdinand died and Charles of Habsburg , also heir to the HRE comes into power. Englsih FP changed to peace as Henry couldn't financially compete with either powers this change is associated with the rise of Wolsey who is prominent by 1517
Offshoots of Privvy Council
Pro Camera Stella - a new section of the coucil under Henry. In charge of investigating, Bribery, Breaches of public order and intimidation, and corruption in the legal system.
Council Learned in the Law - another subgroup establised 1495, Designed to protect Kings position as Fuedal landlord. Began in the Duchy of Lancaster. Looks into anything to do with Crownlands, wardship, marriage, and collection of Fuedal dues and bonds and recognisances. Richard Empson was given position Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster and in charge of the Council Learned. Become hated due to B and R's.
The Great Council - Comprised of Spritual leader and Temporal leaders ( Nobles). Met when King felt it important to call them. Henry only used it 4 times. On 2 occasions Henry invited representatives from town, this was new. It was called at times of emergency. In 1487 in the Simnel Rebellion. Was also used when politically useful, 1492 When Henry attacks France, France gave money for England to leave and they said it was from the GC for cover. It could pre-empt parliment in passing taxes. In 1491 it organised collecting Benevolences.
Yeoman of the Guard - Beefeaters. First permanant military institution set up in this country. New under Henry. Comprises of 200 men. Idea from King of France.
Did Wolsey abuse his power or control Henry ??
Abuse Power ? Henry normally only overuled Wolsey when he was doing a friend a fovour although Wolsey took it as an attack and was vindictive. In Theory the Duke of Buckingham had a greater claim to the throne than Henry and was 'overheard' saying He could take over Henry like his father had tried with Richard. When WOlsey learns of the info he pursades Henry that Buck. was planning a rebellion and he is executed. This can be seen as Wolsey getting revenge on Buck. , as at the start of Henrys reign Buckingham and Oxford had conviced Henry to get rid of the un-nobles around him. They viewed Wolsey as an upstart.
Wolsey never pay's attention to the Church when it comes to Religious reasons. He never turns up at Herecy trials. But he does care about money and positions, he expected Simoney He also increases Churches power in checking over wills and introduces 10% inheritance tax to himself. He spends lots of money on Hampton court Palace and gives it to Henry almost as a bargaining chip for when he needs a big favour. Wolsey also likes finer things.
Controlling Henry ? Polydore Virgil said " WOlsey manipulates Henry" like he would give Henry a nice gift and then ask a favour, he WOuld also Disemble : picking and selecting truths. In 1528 Henry wanted to appoint a relative Abbess of Wilton Wunnery and Wolsey says he doesn't understand and appoints one of his relatives, in the end Henry looses temper after his 3rd letter. Pollard says Henry knew he needed someone to do work for him as he is quite lazy but keeps them on a leash. Henry also realised Wolsey's power would create enemies so he took Wolseys problems with a pinch of Salt.
WFP pt.2 Habsburg-Volois conflict
Habsburgs are Spanish royal family and traditionally family of the HRE, Charles is most powerful person ever owning Spain, Americas, HRE, and parts of Italy. Volois are the French. King Francis feels he is being surrounded by the Spanish empire so he decides to attack Charles in Milan (where he doesn't control). This breaks the Treaty of London. Wolsey and Charles meet and in Nov. 1521 The Treaty of Bruges is signed against the French. Henry hoped to get marriage between Mary and Charles which is agreed but never happens. Wolsey uses delaying tactics as he doesn't want to fignt but Henry does. This is increased when the Duke of Bourbon leads a rebellion against Francis.
Aug 1523 English army arrive of 10 000 arrive and try to lay siege to bologne but fail, they try to march to paris but are bogged down by bad weather. Henrys interest goes down when it costs £40 000 so he tries to make a secret agreement with France. But in Feb 1525 Charles wins massively at Battle of Pavia where he captures Francis and Richard De La Pole is killed. Henry suggests it France being cut into three with him being King and Charles and Bourbon getting a third of the country. But Charles doesn't want hostility in Europe so he leaves. Henry wants to capitalise on a catured Francis but can't due to failure of the Amicable Grant. After this failure their is a shift in Englsih FP.
Wolsey makes alliance against Charles called The League of Cognac and in 1527 England agrees with France to go to war with Charles unless he comes to peace. so in 1528 England go to war with Charles, but they never send troops and sign a trqade tretie with Holland (HRE) so it is half-hearted, given this approach Wolsey just manages to get England included in th peace agreement of Treaty of Cambrai the late intervention showing how England isn't a major power, this change in status between 1520-29 is one of reasons Wolsey falls from power
Wolseys Foreign Policy ? (later FP)
The Period between 1514 and 1529 is interparated the time when WOlsey ran FP.
Wolsey as Peacemaker - October 1518 :Treaty of London , designed to inroduce a 20 year peace in Europe , not allowed to attack other countries other they team up on you. Spain and the Papacy signed quickly, France only did so after England sold back Tournai and Henry's daughter Mary married their eldest Prince. The treaty built upon Papal plans for a five year crusade to recover Holy Lands. People say Wolsey was so ifluential beacuse he wanted Papal positions, others argue was it made it feel important. 1520 Field of the Cloth of Gold - Meeting between Henry and Francis with entertainment and public relations cmenting Treaty of London, all the nobles went. Henry and Francis had a wrestling match and England was trated as an equal. Henry was traditionally allied with Spain, Charles V was the HRE and king of Spain when he see's Henry and Francis he feels betrayed so Henry has meeting with him t shake off hostility.
Wolsey and the Papal Tiara - 1521 Pope Leo X dies Charles says he will support Wolsey but instead supports former tutor Pop Adrian XI who dies in 1523, WOlsey has another chance but doesn't act quick enough as most of his votes are bribes and support was an illusion. Traditionally people thought Wolsey wanted to be Pope, recently people have said others wanted him to, Charles told Henry imagine status if Cheif advisor is Pope, Wolsey goes along but ignores letters from Papal correspondants or delays resoponse.
Who controlled foreign Policy ?
People used to think Henry wasn't interested in Foreign Policy or was manipulated by Wolsey. Nowadays people think Henry was more involved than once thought.
Before 1914 Historians said England tried to keep a balance of power in Europe , it joined the weaker side of either Spain or France to make sure they weren't turned on, they probably thought this because it was FP in 1914. In the 1920's Pollard said FP was just directed by Wolsey doing whatever people wanted him to do.
In the 1960's Scarisbrick said Wolsey only did what the Pope wnated when it was is in his interests. Also England joined stonger side to unbalance power in Europe , to dicourage other side from going to war (peace technique). Recently Historians emphasize a number of factors influenced FP at different times. Like what Wolsey was interested in and desire to increase Leagtine powers or what Henry wants and expects from FP , what was in the National Interest, What was in the Papal interest, or desire for peacetime in Europe.