Triumph of Elizabeth; Succession and Settlement

Notes from the AQA A2 textbook Chapter 3: Succession and Settlement covering establishment of Elizabeth's authority, role of key personalities and challenges to Elizabeth's church settlement

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Rachel Jones 1
Chapter 3
The consolidation of Elizabeth's rule, 155871: Succession and Settlement
The establishment of Elizabeth's authority
17 November: Nicholas Heath announced Mary's death to parliament and proclaimed Elizabeth's succession
showed the political elite collectively assented to Elizabeth's accession
20 November: Appointed Sir William Cecil as Principal Secretary established partnership
Thomas Parry was appointed Comptroller of the Household
Robert Dudley was appointed Master of the Horse
23 November: Elizabeth left Hatfield for London
28 November: Took up residence at the Tower of London
15 January: Coronation led by Marian bishop Owen Oglethorpe, Bishop of Carlisle
25 January: First Parliament
The ideas and policies of Elizabeth I
Elizabeth believed she was entitled to rule the kingdom and it was clear she was in charge
Spanish ambassador, Count of Feria: Elizabeth was more feared than her sister had been and gave
orders `as absolutely as her father did'
No desire to involve herself in the details of government in the same way as Henry VII
She took an informed interest in decisionmaking processes
She was determined to preserve the prerogative powers of the Crown she wanted to make the most
important decisions
She had to overcome the prejudice against female rulers and the inferior woman stereotype
The Role of Key Personalities
Most important person: Sir William Cecil, later Lord Burghley, who served for almost the whole of her reign
Robert Dudley: important as a military figure and as a promoter of the Puritan cause
Relationships between Elizabeth and her ministers
John Guy: `she controlled her own policy more than any other Tudor'
o `she knew her mind her instinct to power was infallible'
Alan Smith: `the Queen depended in some measure upon her councillors for advice....but she alone
made the final decisions'
o `in the last analysis credit for the triumphs of the period must therefore go to Elizabeth herself'
She was conscious of the importance of her royal prerogative which she was not going to limit
Cecil was quickly established as the key figure in the Council
o Anticipating his rise to power before Mary had died
o Spanish Ambassador: `the man who does everything'
Joined in the Council by Sir Nicholas Bacon, Francis Russell and Sir Francis Knollys
Dudley was not part of the Council despite being Elizabeth's favourite

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Chapter 3
Natural to retain some of the aristocrats who had served her sister:
o Marquis of Winchester continued as Lord Treasurer
o Earls of Arundel, Derby, Pembroke and Shrewsbury remained councillors
o Kenninghall group were excluded
o Lord Paget was excluded
There was some tension between Elizabeth and her ministers Queen was good at blaming others if things
went wrong
Conciliar government under Elizabeth
Affected by factional rivalries
Clear divisions between Cecil and his allies who favoured moderate and pragmatic policies…read more

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Chapter 3
To oversee the operation of the regional councils
To manage Crown finances with the Lord Treasurer and the Chancellor of the Exchequer
To discuss matters of state and offer policy advice to the Queen
Most important: continued enforcement of the 1559 religious settlement and overseeing arrangements for
national defence
John Guy: to manage parliament
The Royal Court
Existed wherever the Queen happened to be at a particular time
Two main areas: the Presence Chamber and the Privy Chamber
Presence Chamber…read more

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Chapter 3
Haigh: Neal is putting forward a romantic and nationalist view of her reign
o Followed Notestein's view that parliament's political victory over the monarch can be traced to
the 1590s when the House of Commons won the political initiative at the expense of a tired and
increasingly incompetent government
Sir Geoffrey Elton
o Neale overestimated the importance of the House of Commons
o Neale underestimated the importance of the House of Lords
o Neale exaggerated the assertiveness, coherence and size…read more

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Chapter 3
Excommunication.…read more

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Chapter 3
o What arrangements would be made for the conduct of church services
Legal status had not been altered with the death of Mary
o Until it was changed, the English Church remained in communion with the Church of Rome
o No doubt it was to be changed but to what?
`AngloCatholicism': Catholicism but rejecting the Pope
Moderate Protestant Church: similar to Act of Uniformity in 1549
Radical evangelical Church: similar to Act of Uniformity in 1552
Key Measure Reason for…read more

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Chapter 3
o It allowed the Crown to appoint commissioners who were able to visit, reform, order, correct and
amend all abuses, heresies and offences gave huge amounts of power to commissioners since it did
not define the `heresies' against which they might take action
o It described Elizabeth as `Supreme Governor' could be as a concession to Catholic opinion or a
reflection of the fact women were not regarded as spiritual leaders or the assumption only God could
be head of…read more

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Chapter 3
Sir John Neale:
o The Queen, conscious of the dangerous international situation with England still at war with
France, wanted to gain parliamentary confirmation for her royal supremacy while delaying any
significant changes in religious practice until later.…read more

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Chapter 3
Brett Usher: the appointments of returning exiles were part of a conscious strategy to reshape the
hierarchy of the Church of England along more evangelical lines
The Settlement emphasised the Erastian nature of the Church of England
Peter Lake: two speed view of the settlement
o Act of State which defined the relationship between Crown and Church and which established the
Church's doctrinal position essentially the Queen's view
o OR: Represented the starting point of a process of spiritual renewal…read more

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Chapter 3
o Achieved the settlement she wanted with royal supremacy restored and religious stability
Much distrust among the higher reaches of the clergy regarding the `unreformed' nature of the Church
Catholics witnessed a rapid erosion of the public practice of their faith
Puritan Challenges to the Settlement
Committed minority who wanted to purify the Church of England of Catholic elements
They didn't threaten royal supremacy or have particularly different views
Cultural difference since they placed more emphasis on preaching
Collinson/Lake:…read more


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