Tudors: Chapter 17 - Elizabeth I: Character and Aims

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  • Created on: 03-05-19 18:08
When did Elizabeth become Queen?
November 1558
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What were her aims?
Consolidate her position, settle religious issues, pursue a peaceful settlement with the French
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How did she consolidate her power?
Mary's councillors accepted her succession, Elizabeth showed she was familiar with royal customs by taking herself to the Tower + reemerging several times to her subjects, had her coronation on 15th Jan, had international confirmation (Spain)
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Legal status of the church?
Until laws Mary had created could be reversed, the Church was part of the Catholic Church of Rome but there was no doubt that Elizabeth would reinstate the CofE with herself at its head.
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When was the Act of Supremacy?
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What did the Act of Supremacy do?
Papal supremacy was rejected, Reformation legislation made under Henry VIII was restored, the act referred to the Queen as supreme governor (not supreme head), an oath of supremacy was to be taken by clergymen+church officials
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Oath of supremacy impact?
Many Marian bishops felt unable to take the oath of supremacy and were deprived of their posts (shortage of bishops)
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What was the Act of Uniformity?
Variations in Eucharist belief were made possible (the 1549 wording and the 1552 wording were permitted), the Black Rubric of 1552 prayer book (to explain away the practice of kneeling) was omitted
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When were the royal injunctions?
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What were the royal injunctions?
Emphasised the 'suppression of superstition' (i.e. Catholic practices), the Eucharist was to be administered at a simple table not an alter, attacked Catholic practices e.g. pilgrimages+candles, English bible required in parishes
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When was the treaty of Cateau-Cambresis? What was it?
1559: Peace treaty with France. France agreed to retain Calais for 8yrs, after which it would be restored to England if the English kept peace in the meantime. If France failed to return Calais, they agreed to pay £125000 to England.
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Why did Elizabeth want peace with France?
The war was going badly for England e.g. loss of Calais, and it had weakened Crown finances. France + Spain also had weakened finances and neither Philip II of Spain nor Henry II of France wanted to continue war.
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Why did Henry II of France's death cause problems for relations with Scotland?
He was succeeded by Francis II (whose wife was Mary, QofS). Mary, QofS=E's cousin and the main Catholic claimant to the English throne. The strongly Catholic Guise faction were in power in France +wanted to use Scotland for French policy.
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Who was John Knox?
The radical Calvinist who was the leader of the Scottish Reformation. He was alarmed by French troops in Scottish fortresses and so were the Lords of the Congregation (who were also seeking power in Scotland).
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What did the French forces being in Scottish fortresses lead to?
The Lords of the Congregation requested help from fellow Protestants in England, but E was reluctant to intervene in the domestic affairs of another country.
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What was Cecil's position on intervention in Scotland?
Strongly supported it, sympathised with the religious predicament of the Scottish protestants, also sought the removal of M, QofS, to remove her threat to the English throne.
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How did Cecil convince Elizabeth to intervene?
By playing on her insecurity: pointed to the action of Mary and Francis using the English royal coat of arms and suggested his own resignation if E did not support him.
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How did Elizabeth intervene in Scotland?
1560: Army and navy blockaded Leith (just outside Edinburgh) where French troops were situated from land and sea. The siege failed but other factors led to French withdrawal.
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What led to the French withdrawal?
The French fleet = severely damaged by storm, the regent Mary of Guise died.
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What happened as a result of the French withdrawal?
Cecil secured the Treaty of Edinburgh in 1560, the Lords of Congregation were accepted as a provisional gov, and with the death of Francis II in Dec the Guises fell from power and Mary QofS's influence on French FP ended and she returned to Scotland.
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Impact of this English success?
Cecil = triumphed, the interests of Scottish Protestants were protected while Mary QofS's political influence had been signif reduced but E remained weary that it was good fortune that had lead to the success (death of Francis II)
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Why was Elizabeth encouraged to intervene in France?
Conflict broke out between the Catholics and Protestants in 1562: Dudley encouraged E to put military pressure on the French Crown when it was relatively weak to ensure the return of Calais.
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How did Elizabeth intervene in France?
Promised the Huguenot leader (the Prince of Conde), 6000 men and a loan of £30,000 with control of the port of Le Havre as security.
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What happened despite Elizabeth's intervention?
Huguenot army was defeated, Conde was captured. On the Catholic side the Duke of Guise was killed. W/both sides leaderless, the French factions agreed peace terms and united to drive the English from Le Havre.
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Impact of this French intervention for England?
Forced to seek an unfavourable peace settlement (Treaty of Troyes 1564), lost the Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis, lost Calais (but Calais was expensive to maintain), blow to E's prestige, became more cautious of supporting Protestants in Europe.
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What were her aims?


Consolidate her position, settle religious issues, pursue a peaceful settlement with the French

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How did she consolidate her power?


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Legal status of the church?


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When was the Act of Supremacy?


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