elizabeth tudors

?
  • Created by: 14hwilcox
  • Created on: 02-02-19 15:50

IMPACT OF THE FOREIGN SITUATION

IMPACT OF THE FOREIGN SITUATION

-still at war with France & had lost Calais

-needed to broker peace with France

-be easier to achieve if England was not aggressively Protestant

Spain was vital to English interests as it ruled the Netherlands (a vital trading partner)

HOWEVER Philip II needed English support to allow Spanish ships to move through the Channel to the Netherlands

OVERALL: the foreign situation suggested that Elizabeth needed to proceed with caution

1 of 45

THE UNSETTLED SITUATION AT HOME

UNSETTLED SITUATION AT HOME

Marian bishops meant that they were unwilling to compromise w/ Elizabeth & defeated her first proposals for a religious settlement

English Protestants & returning Marian exiles demanded a radical Protestant settlement

a result of experiencing Calvinismin Geneva & Zürich

2 of 45

ELIZABETH’S ATTITUDE

ELIZABETH’S ATTITUDE

As Anne Boleyn’s daughter, Elizabeth was a symbol of the break with Rome

was educated by humanists & continued to use the English Bible under Mary

She left chapel on Christmas Day 1558 when the host was elevated (Catholic practice)

she was still approving of church music, silver crosses & rich vestments; she disliked long sermons from radical Protestants

3 of 45

The Elizabethan Religious Settlement 1

The Elizabethan Religious Settlement

Commons were likely to support her, but the Lords were likely to oppose

first proposal was approved by the Commons, but all bishops opposed the idea of Royal Supremacy & 18 peers objected to doctrinal changes

title was changed to “Supreme Governor of the Church of England” - appeased Catholics

The Act of Uniformity passed the Commons easily, but passed the Lords by only 3 votes

4 of 45

THE CHURCH SETTLEMENT • Made up of 2 major Acts

THE CHURCH SETTLEMENT

• Made up of 2 major Acts;

THE ACT OF SUPREMACY

Elizabeth was made Supreme Governor

clergy & officials had to take an oath 

heresy laws were repealed

Communion in both wine & bread was authorised

5 of 45

ACT OF UNIFORMITY

THE ACT OF UNIFORMITY

  • 1552 Book of Common Prayer was to be used universally

  • had to attend Church on Sunday or pay a fine

  • Church ornaments/clergy dress had to be those of 1548

  • nothing mentioned of black rubric 
6 of 45

OTHER ACTS PASSED

OTHER ACTS PASSED

Marian monasteries were dissolved

-Royal injunctions; 

-clergy wear distinctive dress, images didnt have to be destroyed

-OVERALL: the settlement was a compromise - although it did not establish a Catholic Church, it was not an extreme Protestant one either

-did not satisfy many Protestant exiles - they wanted Calvinism 

-disliked the structure of the Church - particularly the use of bishops

7 of 45

The Puritan Challenge

CHALLENGE OVER VESTMENTS

1565: Thomas Sampson refused to wear a surplice and was deprived of his benefice

Puritans believed that Church vestments ought to be entirely plain

1566: 37 London preachers deprived due to their stance on dress

PURITANS IN THE HOUSE OF COMMONS

1591: MP Walter Strickland proposed changes to the prayer book, but he was summoned before the Privy Council for infringing royal prerogative and was barred from the House

Anthony Cope proposed a ‘bill & book’ to overturn the governance of the Church, which would have ended the authority of the bishops - Elizabeth sent him & 4 others to the Tower

8 of 45

more puritan

PURITANS AND THEIR POPULAR APPEAL

-Thomas Cartwright (Cambridge professor) - the leading academic to attack the settlement & the place of the bishops - he had his academic freedom of speech revoked 

-1572: John Field & Thomas Wilcox (two ministers) published the ‘Admonition to Parliament’ which called for the church hierarchy to be replaced - they were arrested and sent to jail, but their ideas were debated

9 of 45

The Puritan Challenge

The Puritan Challenge

SURVIVAL OF PURITANISM

-The main reason for its survival was due to prophesyings (where the clergy came together to debate & discuss the Bible), and through the classis movement (meetings to discuss common interests)

-Nobles & gentry helped by establishing lectureships & increasing the amount of preaching

-All of this concerned Elizabeth because it was outside governmental control

10 of 45

limitations to puritan success

LIMITS TO PURITAN SUCCESS

-had no agreed doctrine - it was all Bible-centred and needed people to be literate

The Three Articles: all members of the clergy had to subscribe, or be suspended

Publication of the Marprelate Tracts: Puritanic self-sabotage - attacking the bishops shocked many and allowed a clampdown on printing presses - did much to discredit the Puritan cause, many leaders lost the will to fight on

The most important reason for its limits was Archbishop Whitgift’s determination to ensure conformity or be suspended

11 of 45

Elizabeth’s archbishops and their support

Elizabeth’s archbishops and their support

PARKER

  • Remained in England during Mary’s reign, although deprived of work (he hadn’t been subjected to the extreme ideas of the Genevans

  • achievements included the following:

  • Passing the 39 Articles & resisting calls for them to become more Protestant

12 of 45

Parker 2

Parker 2;

Achievements;

-Passing 39 articles and resisting attempts to make it more protestant 

-Reaching a compromise over the vestments 

Providing the settlement with a firm basis

 

13 of 45

Edmund grindal

EDMUND GRINDAL

-Was exiled during Mary's reign 

-Elizabeth was forced to appoint him after Mary's bishops resigned, he didn't want the job and disagreed over prophesying with Elizabeth, which he believed could improve the standards 

-Elizabeth disagreed because she didn't like the lack of control over these meetings 

1576

He refused to put an end to prophesyings; Elizabeth unable to accept and was put under house arrest for 6 years 

-His suspension meant that the church was without governance for a while 

14 of 45

WHITGIFT

-Remained in England during Mary’s reign

-Dealt with Cartwright's attack on the church and ensured he lost his proffesorship 

-Introduced the three articles 

-Used the ex-officio oath so those had to answer questions truthfully when questioned 

-Clamped down on Marprelate tracts 

-Elizabeth supported him in his actions -> made him a privy councillor 

15 of 45

The Catholic Challenge

The catholic challenge 

-Catholic threat limited during early years, many retained their beliefs but went to services; CHANGED WHEN Mary QOS came to England 

The challenge from Mary Queen of Scots 

-Was forced to abdicate the Scottish throne and came to England for refuge

-Was an annoited queen and had a claim to the throne 

-If Elizabeth sent her back should either be killed by the scots; or regain power and invade England 

-Overall; it was a difficult subject and Elizabeth was in a delicate position regardless

16 of 45

The Catholic Challenge

The Catholic Challenge

Northern Earls Rebellion (1569-70)

- Elizabeth's concerns about Mary were confirmed by the Northern Earls Rebellion ; Mass briefly restored in Durham Cathedral and Mary's claim put forward 

-Rebellion was defeated and Mary taken more south to be kept a closer eye on 

Papal excommunication

- 1570; Pope Pius V issued the papal bull which excommunicated & deposed Elizabeth

Catholics were absolved from recognising Elizabeth as Queen

17 of 45

Catholic Plots

Catholic Plots

1571: Ridolfi plotted w/ the Spanish ambassador to marry Mary to the Duke of Norfolk and put her on the throne

1583: Throckmorton plotted w/ the Spanish ambassador to kill Elizabeth

1586: Babington plotted to kill Elizabeth & make England Catholic using Spanish troops

convinced many that Protestantism was under threat and provoked a series of measures:

• 1584 Bond of Association: anyone linked to plots against E could be executed

-1587; execution of Mary Quen of Scots 

18 of 45

Seminary Priests & Jesuits

Seminary Priests & Jesuits

-Douai Seminary: trained Catholic priests to send to England

-1557: seminary priest Cuthbert Mayne arrested & executed for treason

-1581: recusancy fines increased to £20 per month

-1585: became treason to be an ordained Catholic priest in England

-Their achievements are debatable - some argue that their work was confined to the south-east & to providing for gentry households (thus the impact is limited) - but also, through the gentry households they were able to keep the faith alive

19 of 45

THE PROBLEMS FACING CATHOLICS 1558-89

THE PROBLEMS FACING CATHOLICS 1558-89

Government fines, legislation, and treason Acts limited its appeal

They lacked effective support from abroad

There was a shortage of Catholic priests to keep the faith alive - as they died they weren’t replaced

The execution of Mary QOS meant that there was no figurehead to look up to 

20 of 45

The role of the Court, Ministers & the Privy Counc

THE PRIVY COUNCIL & MINISTERS

-she was under no obligation to accept their advice, but she rarely ignored it

-tried to maintain a balance of opinion

- Many issues discussed; Marriage to Duke of Alencon,  management of Mary Queen of Scots 

-core of the Council in the 1570s was William Cecil (Lord Burghley), Leicester & Walsingham

21 of 45

HOW IMPORTANT WAS WILLIAM CECIL

Friendship lasted 40 years and ended with his death 

Important because

Created an intelligence service

Managed the Houses of Commons & Lords

Created a propaganda system

Drafted E’s correspondence with foreign ambassadors

Pursued a prudent economic policy so that the debt was small when E died

22 of 45

FACTION

-A result of Patronage - A patron would obtain roles for his clients and in return they would pledge to support him (building a faction) 

-Could become dangerous if the Patron favoured one 

THE MAIN FACTIONS

-main factions emerged under Cecil & Dudley

- When it appeared elizabeth and Dudley would marry, cecil despared at the Power he would have; Dudley favoured bold and aggressive foreign policy. Elizabeth favoured more peaceful and diplomatic measures 

 

23 of 45

Faction deux

24 of 45

Faction deux

1556 between Dudley and Thomas Howard 

Howard accused Dudley of murdering his wife so that he could marry E - when a duel appeared possible, E announced that she would not marry Dudley

-She could get tied in with him by being associated, proved she was a victim of faction 

-often able to manage factional clashes by not making decisions, which served to anger both sides

Factional struggles resulted in the execution of 2 courtiers:

-1572; Norfolk executed for ridolphi plot. 1601; Essex executed after rebellion

25 of 45

THE ROLE OF GENDER

THE ROLE OF GENDER

there were a number of female European rulers at the time - Elizabeth believed she was divinely ordained to rule

DIFFICULTIES ARISING FROM HER GENDER:

She was prone to jealousy - e.g. she threatened to send Leicester to the Tower when he remarried. This petty behaviour could damage the govt as it took up time

26 of 45

Advantages of gender

HOWEVER on many occasions, she used her gender to her advantage

-Men would bind themselves to her; Hatton remained  Batchelor 

-Loved flattery; the cult of Gloriana

-Used loyal ladies of the chamber to get court gossip

-Exploited her gender in marriage negotiations with duke of Alencon, called him her 'frog' 

27 of 45

roles & management of the Lords and Commons

Elizabeth only summoned parliament 13 times in 45 years; only when she wanted something

Management of Parliament 

Elizabeth used messages & rumours to direct debates and express her wishes

Until the 1590s, Councillors ensured that they had control of parliamentary business (they drew up the agendas & limited freedom of speech)

Elizabeth influenced the choice of Speaker - important as he controlled the debates, directed the order of business, and could direct the Commons as the Queen wanted

-PEROGATIVE

28 of 45

CONFLICT BETWEEN ELIZABETH & PARLIAMENT

CONFLICT BETWEEN ELIZABETH & PARLIAMENT

RELIGION

-1571: Strickland was suspended but this created so much opposition that it was never done again

-Clashes over religion 

MARRIAGE & SUCCESSION

-The issues were raised in a number of parliaments

-It was key that Elizabeth should find a suitable husband in order to produce heirs

29 of 45

FREEDOM OF SPEECH

FREEDOM OF SPEECH

Some MPs challenged Elizabeth forbidding discussion of certain topics

The sending of Wentworth to the tower by other MPs suggests that they saw him as a nuisance, not a hero

It does not support the view that the Commons was trying to assert its power

MONOPOLIES

Some MPs used this as an opportunity to complain about the use of the royal prerogative over monopolies

The Commons claimed the right to initiate any vote for money & granted the Crown only a fraction of its request

30 of 45

The impact of marriage & succession, and parliamen

  1. WHY WAS ELIZABETH UNWILLING TO MARRy?

-Her sister's marriages, needed a protestant most were catholic, English disliked foreigners and wanted a Protestat, didn't want to be subservient to a man 

THE IMPACT OF MARRIAGE & SUCCESSION ON DOMESTIC AFFAIRS

-Parliament was concerned that she needed to marry - presented a petition in 1559; they urged her again in 1563 after her smallpox crisis

-She refused to name a successor as an heir would be the focus of plots against her

31 of 45

THE IMPACT ON FOREIGN AFFAIRS

WHO WERE ELIZABETH’S SUITORS?

DUDLEY - The death of his wife Amy was suspicious - caused rumours that he had murdered her

PHILIP II OF SPAIN His marriage to Mary already showed him to be unpopular ; He was a devout Catholic

PRINCE ERIC OF SWEDEN - He sent his brother John (Duke of Finland) to plead his cause, but feared that John presented his own candidacy ; wasn't powerful 

THE DUKE OF ALENÇON - Opposition from the public; the Privy Council was divided over the matter

32 of 45

Mary Queen of Scots

Mary Queen of Scots 

-1559: Mary was Queen of Scotland in her own right, and Queen of France

-French were eager to promote her claim to the English throne

1560; Death of Francis got rid of her power - no longer queen of France her mother had died, scottish protestants taken over parliament 

1561: Mary returned to Scotland, having agreed to recognise the Protestant Church; however, she refused to give up her claim to the English throne

33 of 45

MARY’S ARRIVAL IN ENGLAND

-Mary had been forced to abdicate & was held prisoner, but she escaped

-increased the threat to Elizabeth, because Mary was in England and...

-Was an anointed Queen; strong claim to the English throne ;Had produced a child (so an heir); Was Catholic

Elizabeth was placed in a difficult position

-If Mary triumphed in Scotland & gained support, she was an even greater threat

-If Mary was sent back to Scotland & was killed, Elizabeth would be blamed

-If she kept Mary in prisonplots were likely and courtiers were likely to try to gain her favour in case she became Queen

The Northern Earls Rebellion showed the threat that she presented

34 of 45

Factors leading to Mary’s execution

Mary''s execution 

-1569: Northern Earls Rebellion put Mary forward as a claimant to the throne 

-1570: papal bull excommunicated & deposed Elizabeth in the eyes of the Catholic Church

-1571: Ridolfi Plot proposed to marry Mary to Norfolk, led to the 1572 Parliament demanding the execution of both of them (Norfolk was executed to appease the Commons)

-1572: St Bartholomew’s Day Massacre convinced many Protestants that there was a European conspiracy to wipe out their religion 

-1583: Throckmorton Plot

-1586: Babington Plot

35 of 45

The financial & economic situation in 1558

The financial & economic situation in 1558

Ordinary revenue; Crown lands, customs duties, patronage 

Extraordinary revenue; Parliamentary taxation, only in times of emergency 

-Needed to make sure policies were financed by her ordinary revenue 

DEBTS FROM MARY

Inherited a debt of £227,000 , caused by war with France , much of the debt owed to the Antwerp exchange 

MARIAN FINANCIAL REFORMS

-Tried to make more efficient administration; E.g book of rates for customs duties had been revised 

36 of 45

Elizabeth finance 2

-inherited the services of the Marquis of Winchester, who was highly experienced as Lord Treasurer

THE ROLE OF SIR THOMAS GRESHAM

-identified 3 key problems faced by Elizabeth:

-Debasement of the coinage

-cost of war and the loans needed to fund it

-Hanseatic League (importers & exporters of goods to and from Europe) as they carried the wool from England

 

37 of 45

ELIZABETH & HER DEBTS

Elizabeth and her debts

  1. -She was largely very prudent & managed to avoid serious debt (as a single woman without a family)

  2. -Courtiers gave generous gifts, which boosted her income
  3. -avoided war as far as possible
  4. -1576: Elizabeth had managed to eliminate the Marian debt, and actually had a surplus of £300,000 in the Treasury by 1584

-Suggests that the wars against Spain & Ireland caused the financial problems in the latter years of her reign

38 of 45

Sources of Crown income & finance

Sources of Crown income & finance

CROWN LANDS

-able to increase her revenue from lands by £25,000; still less of a gain than the nobles made 

-reluctant to exploit her tenants

CUSTOMS DUTIES

-Mary’s revised Book of Rates came into play in 1558, More imports were subject to tax 

-not maintained - by 1590, customs were bringing in an amount that was scarcely keeping pace with inflation

39 of 45

PARLIAMENTARY TAXATION

PARLIAMENTARY TAXATION

Parliament could grant elizabeth money; two taxes

Fifteenths and tenths, raised £30,000, the subsidy raised about £100,000 

Rising inflation meant that the value of taxation further decreased - Elizabeth was failing to fully exploit this source of income

EFFICIENCY SAVINGS

-Mary’s financial reforms had increased efficiency

-Officials were not well- paid, which was worsened by inflation - this encouraged corruption

-A finance committee was established to draw up a budget, see where cuts could be made, collect debts more effectively

40 of 45

OTHER INCOME

OTHER INCOME

-The Queen gained income from the Church - First Fruits & Tenths

-Grants in parliament gave her money

-Money was collected from non-attendance at Church

-Recusancy fines introduced in 1581

41 of 45

INFLATION

INFLATION

-Made worse by the issue of debasement in the 1540s

-Increased again in the 1560s, causing a rapid rise in food prices

-Population increase & war also had large parts to play in inflation

SERIOUS BECAUSE

-Elizabeth struggled to increase her income

• She attempted to tackle the issue by recoinage - this only had limited succes

-made worse by war; supplies cost more

42 of 45

WAR

WAR

-Piracy managed to seize some revenue - Drake’s attack on a Spanish ship in 1587 brought in £140,000

The cost of warfare had the biggest impact

1585: Treaty of Nonsuch pledged support to Dutch rebels; war in the Netherlands; support for Henry of Navarre in France;

43 of 45

MONOPOLIES

MONOPOLIES

-MONOPOLIES = granting exclusive rights to particular trades/manufacturers

-Used to reward courtiers but also prevented competition and therefore led to price increase

-A proclamation ended the monopolies on salt, vinegar & starch

44 of 45

ADMINISTRATION

ADMINISTRATION

-Elizabeth attempted to make efficiency savings to help reduce costs

-1560: she introduced a new coinage to try to end inflation

-Government attempted to reduce imports, but this led to trade embargoes

-1586: Book of Orders instructed the JPs that there was to be no hoarding of grain

-As the period progressed, the govt intervened more and more in the economy

45 of 45

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all Tudors resources »