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Biological differences: Wilson and Herrnstein
· Crime is caused by a combination of biological and social factors
· Some people are more strongly predisposed to commit crimes e.g. Aggressive personality
· Herrnstein & Murray ­ Low IQ is the main cause of crime
Socialisation and the underclass: Charles Murray
· Crime rate is increasing due to the development of an underclass
· Welfare state, `generous revolution' allows people to dependant on the state
· Led to the growth of single parent families who fail to socialise their children correctly
· Absent fathers mean the boys lack discipline and appropriate role models
· They turn to crime to gain status
Rational Choice Theory: Ron Clarke
· Decision to commit crime is based on a calculation of the consequences
· If the costs outweigh the consequences the crime will occur…read more

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· Seek to make crime less attractive
· Focus on control, containment and punishment of offenders
· Essential to maintain the orderly character of the neighbourhoods
to prevent crime taking hold
· Advocate a `Zero tolerance' policy towards undesirable behaviour
e.g. Begging
· Crime prevention policies should reduce the rewards and increase
the costs of crime…read more

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· Ignores the wider structural causes of crime e.g. Poverty
· Overstates offenders' rationality and how far they make calculations
· View that criminals freely choose crime conflicts with the biology belief
· Lilly et Al ­ IQ differences account for less than 3% of differences in offending
· Ignores corporate , state and upper class crime
· Advocating a zero policy gives police rein to discriminate
· Jones ­ Right realism policies have failed to prevent crime rate rising
· Over emphasises control of disorder, rather than tackling the underlying causes of
neighbourhood decline e.g. Lack in investment
· Jane Mooney ­ There is no evidence to support the view that there is a link between lone
parenting and crime…read more

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Relative Deprivation: Lea & Young
· People feel deprived in comparison to others
· Today's media stresses the importance of economic goods
· More people adopt individualism, pursuing their own self-interests
· These causes the disintegration of families and weakens the informal controls
· Groups collective response to deprivation
· Some may turn to crime to close the deprivation gap whilst other use spiritual means
· Lack both clear goal and organisations to represent their interests
· They resort to violence to vent their frustration…read more

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Policing and control
· Police clear up rates are too law to act as a deterrent to crime
· Police gain 90% of information from the public, but this is drying up
· Instead police reply on military techniques e.g. Swamping
· This alienates communities and local no longer trust police
· Policing must be made accountable to local communities
· The relationship between the police and community must improve
· Must have a multi agency approach e.g. Social services, local councils
Tackling the structural causes
· Deal with inequality of opportunity and the unfairness of rewards
· Tackle discrimination, provide decent homes & jobs
· Must become more tolerant of diversity…read more

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