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INTRO
· Labelling and critical criminologists see crime as socially
constructed
· Realists see crime as a real problem that needs to be tackled
· They argue there has been a significant rise in crime rates
· Realists are concerned about the fear of crime and about the
impact it has on its victims
· They argue that other theories don't offer realistic solutions to the
problem of crime and they propose policies to reduce crime.…read more

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THE CAUSES OF CRIME
LEFT REALISTS [ socialists ] RIGHT REALISTS [ new right ]
· Marginalisation · Bio-social
· Relative deprivation · Cultural
· Subcultures · Opportunity
· Choice…read more

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THE INTRO TO LEFT REALISM
· Left realism was developed as a response to Marxism and
Neo-Marxism
· Left realists believe Marxists reduce crimes to moral panics
and they romanticise working class criminals
· Left realism:
· Looks at the individuals and at what caused them to commit crimes
· Provides a causal explanation for crime
· Like Marxists they believe society is an unequal capitalist one
but reform is the answer ­ not revolution…read more

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LEFT REALISM ­ JOCK YOUNG (2002)
· Crime needs to be taken seriously
· Most victims of crime are from the working class
· This is because its the poorest most deprived people who are
desperate for material possessions
· The most socially excluded crave cultural inclusion which
leads them to crime
· This is evident in the fact that the people at the bottom of the
class structure consume more culture media images than
others…read more

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LEFT REALISM ­ THE CAUSES OF CRIME
Relative Deprivation Subcultures Marginalisation
· Some individuals feel · Groups form subcultures · Refers to individuals
deprived in inner city areas living on margins of
society, unable to take
· Leads to a sense of · Messner and Golden part
injustice and resentment (1992) ­ where there is
racism, violent · Gibbs and Merighi (1994)
· Lea and Young (1992) ­ subcultures flourish ­ black community is
ethnic minorities feel marginalised. Leads to
policing is unfair and feel frustration which leads to
resentment crime…read more

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