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STATISTICS MAY BE WRONG
· What we know about secularisation and declining beliefs comes
from statistics collected by sociologists
· But there are a number of problems with this;
· Most are conducted over the phone, so people give answers to be
quick
· People may give socially desirable/inaccurate answers
· Hadaway et al: counted the number of cars to measure church
attendance
However,
· Some people may have walked
· Families may have car shared
· The statistics we have against secularisation could be inaccurate…read more

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VICARIOUS RELIGION: DAVIE
· Religion is not practises overtly by the majority, but that most
engage with religion on a vicarious level
· Rituals are performed by an active minority on behalf of a
majority
· In time of tragedy, people turn to the church to express a gesture
· People expect that they will have the right to the services of the
church at critical moments
· Churches must exist in order to meet such demands
GROWTH OF FUNDAMENTALISM
· Group of people who are committed to a set of religious beliefs
· Often feeling threatened by growing secularisation
· Almond: Fundamentalism is growing globally and is not
confirmed to one religion…read more

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CULTURAL DEFENCE & TRANSITION:
BRUCE
· Identifies two trends which go against secularisation
· Cultural Defence: religion provides a focal point for defence
against threats
· Cultural Transition: Religion provides support within a new
community
However, Bruce added (A02)
· Religion only survives in these situations because it acts as a focal
point for identity
· Religion will survive as long as it performs these functions
A02:
· Berger: Diversity and choice actually
stimulate interest and participation
· Beckford: Opposing views can have the effect
of strengthening a religion group's
commitment to its existing beliefs…read more

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THE SECULARISATION CYCLE: STARK &
BAINBRIDGE
· Secularisation is not the end of religion, but a cycle
· Religion can never disappear/decline
· It will always be needed to answer questions, offer moral guidance
and rewards for society
Secularisation
Decline Innovation
Revival…read more

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EXTRA SOCIOLOGISTS
· Greely: `A renewal or continuing vitality of religious belief', traditional
religion may be declining but other religions are not
· Heelas: People are blending `hybirds' of religion, they are created
their own individualists spirituality centred religion
· Wilson: Sects still continue to grow which shows only traditional
religion is declining
· Berger: Sects are `islands in a secular sea' they are not affected by
secularisation
· Davie: `Believing without belonging', people still believe in a God,
they just don't attend places of worship
· Bellah: Institutional religion is in decline but other forms of
religion exists e.g. `finding yourself' or a spiritual journey…read more

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