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Physiological Explanations
Atavistic Form
Lombroso
· Criminals have different physical
features compared to non
criminals. What was
Evaluation the
contradicting
· No actual criminal/ study to
non-criminal comparisons Lombroso?
made.
· All participants had psychological
disorders ­ confused criminality
with psychopathology.…read more

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Physiological Explanations
Somatotype Theory
Sheldon
· Three body shapes
­ Mesomorph = characterised criminal
Evaluation
· Unreliable classifications. Worksheet:
Tasks 1 and 2
· Data reanalysed using legal
documents = no significance.
· Other explanations of body
shape linking with criminal
behaviour.…read more

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Biological Explanations
Adoption Studies
· Compared children's behaviour to
both adoptive and biological
parents.
Evaluation
· Adopted children are put into an
environment similar to home.
· Some children are adopted at a
late age so may already have
been exposed to crime.…read more

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Biological Explanations
Twin Studies
· MZ twins have higher
concordance the DZ twins for
criminal behaviour.
Evaluation
· Low concordance rates = Worksheet:
environmental influences. Task 3
· MZ twins treated more alike and
this could increase
concordance.…read more

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Psychodynamic Explanations
Weak Super Ego
· The superego provides the ego with a
set of morals, goals and values.
· Crimes happen due to a weak
superego, leading to an imbalance
between the three components of the
personality. What did
Hoffman
­ ID, Ego, Superego suggest?
Evaluation
· Freud believed that women have a
weaker superego compared to males.
­ Hoffman contradicts.…read more

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