revision criminal psychology

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EXPLANATIONS OF CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR
tHEORIES OF
CRIMINAL
bEHAVIOUR
BIOLOGICAL PERSONALITY INTERACTIONIST SOCIAL LEARNING
Lombroso ­ facial Eysenck ­ EPQ Mednick ­ adoption Bandura ­ vicarious
features Hare ­ Hare Scale study reinforcement
Sheldon ­ body types Freud ­ poorly Farrington ­ mostly Zimbardo ­ social
Raine developed superego social but genetic as roles
neuropsychology criminal parents
individual and cultural differences
GENDER AGE
Fawcett Society ­ women who suffer domestic Farrington ­ for juvenile crime
abuse more likely to offend
Moir ­ link between criminality and PMT
social psychology of
the criminal
ZIMBARDO BANDURA FARRINGTON TAYLOR
Deindividuation ­ Social learning theory Social factors such as Radical Criminology
explains crowd and self efficacy poverty and lack of Theory from Marxist
violence education perspective.

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Issues in explanations for criminal behaviour
CORRELATION VERSUS CAUSATION ­ IMPORTANT AS IF CAN IDENTIFY CAUSES THEN CAN PREVENT
CRIME BEFORE IT HAPPENS USEFUL FOR SOCIAL POLICY AND WILL SAVE UK BILLIONS
Here you could C&C Sheldon and Lombroso or Farrington C&C Mednick ­ as all research correlational due to ethical
issues you could not do experiment.…read more

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CRIMINAL THINKING PATTERNS
morality and crime ­ immature moral thinking
Kohlberg Palmer and Hollin
3 levels of moral development Young Offenders
Cognitive development in response to Heinz Dilemma Scale used to measure attitudes
Says our moral development result of social influences such
as parenting
SOCIAL COGNITION AND CRIME ­ SAYS
COGNiTIVE PROCESSES ABNORMAL
Yochelson and Samenow Blair et al
Errors and biases in criminals thinking Responsiveness to distress cues
Freudian interviews revealed need to control, egotistical, Used Hare Scale to identify psychopathic thinking
external attribution.…read more

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ISSUES AROUND CRIMINAL THINKING PATTERNS
nature versus nurture ­ important as can put corrective social policies in place
Parenting styles seem to be common factor Palmer and Hollin C&C Yochelson and Samenow ­ supports personality
explanations ­ could then support introduction of parenting centres and forced parenting classes on problem families.
sampling ­ a massive issue as majority of research tends to be on young male criminals or psychopaths.…read more

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CRIME VICTIM INTERACTION
WHO ARE THE
VICTIMS? SURVEYS A
GOOD WAY TO FIND OUT
the dark figure of crime
Official Crime Statistics British Crime Survey Simmonds and Dodd ­ Crime Nayak
in England and Wales
Very useful compilation of 19000 households interviewed Combination of stats from Thru children's eyes
reported and solved crimes Identifies who is likely to be a Official Crime figures and Children filled in
with conviction rates from all victim: findings of British Crime questionnaire as part of
forces in the UK…read more

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Showed what factors affect whether
you will fight back and/or report the
crime…read more

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ISSUES IN CRIME VICTIM INTERACTION
INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES ­ IMPORTANT POINT AS WE ALL RESPOND DIFFERENTLY SO ISSUES OF
GENERALISABILITY
Could start with Donaldson here and discuss particular issues with elderly then C&C with Nayak and issues around
criminalisation of gender and then C&C Kidd where reckless personality is a factor.
methodology ­ significant issue as affects detail and type of data obtained. Helps us allocate finite resources to those who
need it most e.g.…read more

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OFFENDER PROFILING
uk dAVID cANTER usa fbi aPPROACH RESSLER
Bottom up approach focus on the crime scene and Top down approach
clues gathered from it Focus on creating cognitive models which can then be
Theories based on in depth interviews with 27 placed `over' the scene
offenders which helped him identify 33 common Based on interviews with 36 serial killers mostly
offence characteristics sexually motivated Then led to two categories
Use of multi variate analysis helped identify which organised killers (intelligent, controlled) and
factors are…read more

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