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Founder: Benjamin Disraeli
1. One Nation Toryism
· DISRAELI was a realist and dealt with the threat posed by the rise of the working class and their main
political tradition ­ socialism. Disraeli's main contributions were his theories about the organic nature of
· He said, capitalism is trying to create a society of individuals at the expense of a general sense of social
responsibility. People are too busy pursuing their own selfish ends was liable to lose a strong sense of nation
and society.
·The effect of free-market capitalism was dividing the country into distinctive groups ­ the prosperous few
and the many poor. Disraeli described this division as two nations. It was a recipe for revolution since it
created class conflict.
·It was the role of conservatives to unite the nation and create one nation. In order to do this, government
should cease to rule in the interests of only one class and instead care for the welfare of all classes.
·Disraelian `One-nation Toryism' was a type of conservatism that has as its core aim the unity of the people
and the avoidance of social conflict.
·According to Disraeli, national unity was to be provided by four main forces. There were :
·Constitutional unity of the UK
·The maintenance of great traditions around which people could unite
·The encouragement of patriotism
·The provision of welfare for the poor to prevent excessive inequality and therefore conflict.…read more

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2. The Nationalist authoritarian
There is a tradition within conservatism that has favoured authoritarian rule.
· Joseph de Maistre wished to restore absolute power to the hereditary monarchy. His political philosophy was based on
willing and complete subordination to `the master'.
· He argued that above the earthly monarchies a supreme spiritual power should rule in the person of the pope. His
central concern was the preservation of order, which alone, he believed, could provide people with safety and security.
Revolution, however, weakened the chains that bind people together and lead to a descent into chaos and oppression.
· 19th century: Conservatives in Continental Europe remained faithful to the rigid and hierarchical values of autocratic value.
Authoritarianism proclaimed the principles of `orthodoxy, autocracy and nationality', in contrast, to the
values that had inspired the French Revolution: Liberty, Equality and Fraternity'.
Negative Positive
Conservatives elites in Italy and Conservative-authoritarian regimes have look to the newly enfranchised masses for
Germany helped to overthrow political support.
parliamentary democracy and bring Napoleon succeeded by appealing to the smallholding peasantry. The Napoleonic
Mussolini and Hitler to power by regime fused authoritarianism with the promise of ECONOMIC PROSPERITY and
providing support for and giving SOCIAL REFORM in the kind of plebiscitary (vote for all citizens) dictatorship
respectability to rising fascist more commonly found in the 20th century.
Juan Peron proclaimed the familiar authoritarian themes of obedience order and national unity. However, he based his
political support not on the interests of traditional elites but on an appeal to the impoverished masses, the shirtless one.
The Peronist regime was populist in that it moulded its policies according to the instincts and wishes of the common
people.…read more

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The Nationalist authoritarian
Ultra conservatives are radical nationalists placing the national interest above all.
They oppose the activities of the European Union and International organisations and are
extremely resistant to immigration into their countries.
They certainly do oppose multiculturalism- prefer a `monoculture' where citizens are
expected to adopt the dominant domestic culture.
They propose an extremely authoritarian form of state in terms of law and order, morality
and national security.
They are democrats and support a pluralist society where different groups can be allowed to
flourish as long as they do not threaten the national culture or public order.
They tend to support free market economics, insisting that the state should be limited to
matters of order and security.…read more

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3. The New Right
Thatcher- 'We need a far greater degree of personal responsibility and decision, far more independence from the
government and a comparative reduction in the role of the state'.
·The term was imported from USA into UK to describe the wing of the Conservative Party that
gathered around the leadership of Margret Thatcher.
·The movement has been described as `Thatcherism' Or `Reaganism' or sometimes a blend of
neo-liberalism and neo-conservatives. It was not developed by Thatcher and Reagan. They were
merely the dominant political leaders to put the principle into practice.
·Its ideas were a revival of past political traditions such as Classical Liberalism, Populism,
Whiggism and Conservatism itself. It also draws inspiration from a number of other political
traditions.…read more

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Classical Liberalism:
· Associated with the growth of free market capitalism.
·Supported extensive individual freedom.
·Advocates a minimal state, free economic markets, a competitive society and the absence of
state-organised welfare.
·Believed strongly in self-responsibility: individuals shouldn't be cradled by the state but accept
their life circumstances under their own control.
·For the New Right, Freedom was to be extended in the economic sphere.
Neo-classical economics:
This kind of economics included two main propositions:
1. The state should intervene solely to control the currency and public finances as to maintain
2. The economy contained internal mechanisms that would always bring it back to full
employment and growth. This automatic stabilising system relied upon the state not
3. In 1980, neo classical economics was renamed as `monetarism'. It was Margret Thatcher
who was the first to dare to experiment with it when she was faces with a severely
depressed British economy. She refused to intervene and the economy recovered
Right-wing Nationalism:
·The new right was faced by the challenges of both globalisation and the advance of European
·UK supporters reacted strongly by asserting national interests in the face of these threat to the
autonomy of nation-states everywhere.…read more

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