Different Types of Conservatism

  • Created by: AshyBoy
  • Created on: 02-08-18 15:45
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What are the defining aspects of Traditional Conservatism?
'Authoritarian' - Stems from the fear of change and reform / 'Reactionary' - Means looking back in the past to find a solution in the future. (The focus is maintaining social order)
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What is the oragnic society and what role does it play?
It means that society should 'evolve gradually' instead of through revolution (hence focus on tradition) as that would lead to nationalism e.g. NB Burke's hostility to the French Revolution
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What are a traditional conservatives feelings about hierarchy?
They believe that hierarchy is essential. They believe humans are greedy and unable to understand the world around them hence the need for a strong state.
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What is this type of conservatism also known as; who was most associated with this and what were his goals?
Paternal conservatism. Most commonly linked to Benjamin Disraeli. A pragmatist that aimed to attract working class voters (to prevent them from turning to socialism).
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What did David Cameron aim to do with One Nation Conservatism?
He aimed to make the Conservatives more inclusive. It was called Pragmatic Conservatism - aimed to update/modernise.
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What was Benjamin Disraeli's opinion on laissez faire capitalism and individualism?
He believed that they must be curbed i.e. we have a 'responsibility towards others' and need to combat social inequality and poverty. He wanted to do this so that the poor did not threaten the existing hierarchy. (Noblesse Oblige)
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If this is not socialism then what is it?
It is paternalism. i.e. Less working hours / introducing a living wage. It is the people at the top being responsible for the less fortunate. Thatcher in 1980 called these paternalistic Conservatives "wets".
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Why is Patriotism and Tradition important to these types of Conservatives?
They believe it stops the country from splitting into the "haves" and "have nots". i.e. The Monarchy can unify the country in troubling times such as war.
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After the war what did most Conservatives and the rest of the country agree on?
That there is a need for a mixed economy. i.e. Welfare and nationalised healthcare while also maintaining a moderately free market.
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What is New Right Conservatism and how does it differ from other forms of Conservatism?
It is a combination of Neo-Liberalism and Neo-Conservatism. Contains radical and reactionary ideas from both. Market and economy should be free but human nature must be controlled so strict on law & order and public morality.
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It became popular in the US and UK after the perceived failing of the Keynesian and traditional Conservative paternalism. It differs from other forms of Conservatism because it is not pragmatic and it actually has an ideology. i.e. The free market. .
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Who is most attributed to this ideology?
Robert Nozick
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What was his opinion on the One Nation economic policy?
He rejected it (i.e.we must curb capitalism to help the poor).
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When Thatcher won in 1979 what did she blame for the economic problems of the 70's and what economist did she prefer?
She blamed Keynesianism and prefered Milton Friedman who agreed that it was necessary to adopt a certain level of unemployment and that it was more important to curb inflation. (Unemployment means that workers cant strong arm employers)
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What did 18th Century Scottish economist Adam Smith argue?
That the 'invisible hand of the free market' should guide economic policy. This led to the privatisation programme in the UK (state intervention should be minimal.)
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Neo-Liberals believe that the welfare state leads to a ___ culture. And that it must be ___ so that people can stand on their own two ___
dependency - managed - feet
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What did Robert Nozick suggest about welfare and hand outs?
He suggested that the welfare was a violation of property rights. He suggested that charities and voluntary organisations rather than the state should help the poor.
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___ cuts are necessary. If the wealthy have more money, they will ___ more money, create ___, and wealth will ___ ___ to those below.
tax - make - jobs - trickle down
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The emphasis is on ___ individualism
atomistic (Thatcher - "there is no such thing as society") (Individuals should be allowed to manage their own affairs)
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What incited the creation of this ideology?
The drastic social change of the 60's and 70's
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What is Anti-Permissiveness?
The rejection of the idea that individuals should be able to do whatever they want e.g. divorce, children outside marriage. Permissiveness challenges authority and hierarchy which leads to increased crime & social problems e.g. single parents
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What is Social Authoritarianism?
The idea that people are so weak that they need discipline from above. Inequality is natural and unavoidable.
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What is the difference between Neo-liberals and Neo-Conservatives on the matters of the role of the state.
Neo-liberals want a reduced role for the state but Neo-Conservatives want a 'strong state' in relation to law and order. (e.g.increased police numbers)
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What are Neo-Conservative views on multiculturalism and immigration?
They oppose multiculturalism and immigration as they believe that it reduced national unity and patriotism). Can lead to neo-cons to an aggressive foreign policy e.g. US invasion of Iraq.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What are the defining aspects of Traditional Conservatism?


'Authoritarian' - Stems from the fear of change and reform / 'Reactionary' - Means looking back in the past to find a solution in the future. (The focus is maintaining social order)

Card 3


What is the oragnic society and what role does it play?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What are a traditional conservatives feelings about hierarchy?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5




Preview of the front of card 5
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