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What impact did the Crimean War have on
nursing as a female profession?
In November 1855, Sidney Herbert set up the
Nightingale Fund to improve the standard of female
nursing. He launched it as a national appeal.
Money flooded in from the public
It was used to set up the Nightingale Training school for
nurses
However, it is debatable whether Nightingale actually
wanted anything to do with the school
Queen Victoria sent Nightingale a brooch and an
invitation to visit her when she returned
Nightingale elevated nursing to the level of a
respectable profession for females, and published her
book "Notes on Nursing"…read more

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What problems were there with the army during the
Crimean War?
It had become clear to politicians that there were two
major problems within the army:
The first was the mismanagement of supplies
The second was the sharp division between officers
and men- due to methods of recruitment and
promotion. There was evidence of severe inequality
(e.g. with quality of food)…read more

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The McNeill-Tulloch Report
In February 1855, the Minister of War , Lord Panmere,
ordered Sir John McNeill and Lord Tulloch to go to the
Crimean to investigate the mismanagement of supplies.
They had two orders:
To investigate the civilian side- how supplies were obtained and
sent out. This order was made public.
To investigate military mismanagement and the role of the army in
the chaos- particularly in the delays in the unloading of and the
distribution of supplies
The report caused much furore when published- military
and civilian negligence was exposed
For the politicians, it did its job- it brought the army
more under the control of parliament, and less under
that of the monarchy and the generals…read more

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The Cardwell Army Reforms- 1870-71
By 1868, Prime Minister Gladstone's government felt
able to impose army reforms proposed by the
Secretary for War, Edward Cardwell
The reforms angered the aristocracy and did not
address all the problems
Modern artillery was rejected
There were also inadequate reserves- 35,000- not
enough to wage European war…read more

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What were the Cardwell Army reforms, 1870-71?
All military departments were combined under one roof-
the War Office
The country was divided into local regimental districts
and the regiments were reorganised
The length of overseas service was cut from 12 to 6
months
The purchase of commissions was abolished and
promotion through merit was introduced
The Commander in Chief became answerable to secretary
for war and, through him, to Parliament
Flogging of soldiers was forbidden during peacetime
Soldiers could get paid to stay in the reserves…read more

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