The Experience of Warfare: The Crimean War

Section 1 of the Experience of Warfare section in AS Edexcel History

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1. The Crimean War
1.1. The causes and course of the war
1.2. The impact of war reporting ­ Fenton and Russell
1.3. Depictions and remembrance of the war
1.4. Medical and nursing provision in the Crimean War
1.5. Disorganisation and inefficiency in the British Army
1.6. Medical, army and civil service reform

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The causes and course of the war
Context:
Britain
Russian Empire VS. France
Ottoman Empire
A) Fighting between the Russians and the Ottomans started in the southern Danube region of
Europe in 1853.
B) Britain and France got involved in 1854 after the Russians sunk the Ottoman fleet in the Black
Sea at Sinope.
C) The British and French fought the Russians in the Crimea, a region of Russia on the Black Sea.…read more

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The main events of the Crimean War:
Date Event Details
30 Nov 1853 The Battle of Sinope Russia sank Ottoman ships at Sinope in the Black Sea…read more

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Sep 1854 The start of the 60,000 British and French troops arrived backed by a
invasion of the small Ottoman contingent: the key target was the
Crimea Russian naval base of Sevastopol
20 Sep 1854 The Battle of Alma The British and French defeated Russian forces at the
Alma River near Sevastopol
24 Sep 1854 The start of the Siege The first British and French bombardment of the city
of Sevastopol started on 17th October
24-25 Oct The Battle of Desperate to break the siege,…read more

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Criticised poor living conditions of British soldiers
C) Following Russell's reports on problems with medical supplies in the Crimea, The Times
established a `Crimea fund' in October 1854 to raise money to send supplies to the Crimea.
Over £7,000 was raised.
D) Russell's reports provide valuable information about the conduct of the Crimean War. Not all
of his reports are entirely reliable, however:
a.…read more

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C) The Times' campaign also created a political crisis which demonstrated the power of the
press and public opinion.
1.3. Depictions and remembrance of the war
A) Remembered as having brave, heroic soldiers badly led by blundering aristocratic officers.
B) Events such as the Thin Red Line and The Charge of the Light Brigade became very famous,
being painted extensively.
The Thin Red Line
A) Early on in the Battle of Balaclava, Russian soldiers advanced on the British line.…read more

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The Charge of the Light Brigade
A) Lord Raglan issued a hurried and poorly explained order to Lord Lucan to charge at the
Russian guns.
B) Lord Raglan intended Lucan to focus on retaking British guns that the Russians had taken on
Causeway Heights.
C) His orders were vague, however, and Captain Nolan was not able to clarify the order
properly to Lucan.…read more

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Medical and nursing provision during the Crimean
War
Medical provision during the Crimean War
A) Major hospitals were based at Scutari, near Constantinople.
B) 6,000 men could be treated there.
C) Provision was inadequate because only 4/100 medical assistants.
D) Provision of medical supplies inefficient.
E) Lacked washing facilities.
F) Disease significant problem.
G) 1,761/18,085 British died in action ­ rest disease/wounds.…read more

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Typhus
b. Typhoid
c. Dysentery
d. Cholera
I) Anaesthesia was infrequently used and no treatment available for septicaemia.
The role of Florence Nightingale
A) Arrived at Scutari in November 1854 accompanied by 38 nurses.
B) Collected information to analyse mortality rates and introduced improvements to:
a. Water supply
b. Organisation
c. Cleanliness
d. Food
C) She bought supplies using the `Crimea Fund' independently from military authorities.
D) In the 19th C., she was idolised a `Lady with the Lamp'/ministering angel.
E) In the 20th C.…read more

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E) She was very popular and famous in her day, but has been eclipsed until recently by
Nightingale.
1.5. Disorganisation and inefficiency in the British Army
Problems with supply and transportation
A) Medical supplies such as bandages or anaesthesia at Scutari were inadequate.
B) Shortage of wagons to transport the wounded to hospital and it took until 1855 to get four
hospital ships up and running.
C) Inadequate housing for soldiers.…read more

Comments

Faith Thompson

so useful!!!

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