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The Debates…read more

Slide 2

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Hard Determinism:
· Everything's inevitable ­ events determined before they occur
· The Future already exists ­ can't be held responsible for anything.
· Output depends on the Input ­ everything's an output
Biological Determinism - B.'s caused by biological factors. (genes, hormones,
Psychic Determinism ­ B.'s caused unconscious forces. Freud ­ Free will's an
illusion. (ID, Defence mechanisms, etc)
Environment Determinism ­ B.'s caused by environmental factors. (S-R, etc)
· Compatible with scientific method ­ assumes all behaviour has a cause &
obeys laws = predictability. ­ False assumption that all predictions are as
accurate as possible ­ many influences on behav., even Physicists have to
build uncertainty factors into their theories.
· Although compatible with the scientific method, it isn't falsifiable ­
reasons that if evidence hasn't been found then it will in the future, just
don't have the technology advances, yet.…read more

Slide 3

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Free Will
Free Will:
· We make our choices completely constraint-free
at our own digression ­ can control own thoughts
and feelings
· Hypothetical concept, can't be tested empircally.
Doesn't recognise ability to establish cause and
effect on human bahav. They think it's
inappropriate to study human behaviour with
science ­ humans are unpredictable. E.G. Kick a
ball with force, know what'll happen. Kick a
human with force, don't know how they'd react.
Evaluation: - inconsistent with scientific method…read more

Slide 4

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Soft Determinism ­ element of free will, but within
constrained factors out of our control. E.G. Academic
Key Points:
· The Debate's about how control a person has over their
behaviour. FW=choice D=no choice
· 2 main categories: Internal (Bio and Psychic) and External
· Humanistic nearest to 1 can get to FW in psych
· `Soft D.' is the term used to convey idea that FW isn't
freedom from causation but from coercion. HD=more
extreme, embodying the idea that all behav. Is predictable
& caused by forces out of our control
· D. Combatable with Scientific method.
· FW & D overlap. Humanist Psychs lean to FW, but accept
the constraints on behav. And D accepts existance of
`uncertainty factors'…read more

Slide 5

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Free Will & Determinism Key words:
· Internal Determinism ­ belief in the internal causes of behaviours ­ e.g.
Biological factors, unconscious mental processes
· External Determinism ­ behaviour occurs due to an environmental cause ­
Behaviourist represent this extreme.
· Biological Determinism ­ all behaviour and thought's caused by the
actions of the nervous system and genetic factors
· Psychic Determinism ­ all behav. & thought's caused by unconscious
forces associated with the life and death instinct.
· Overdetermination ­ belief that a single observed effect's determined by
multiple causes at once, any of which, may be enough to account for the
effect (associated with Freudian Determinism)
· Environmental Determinism ­ behaviour as a result of environmental
control over stimuli and the external forces of rewards & punishments.
· Soft Determinism ­ behaviour is determined/caused by a person's own
character, wishes/desired goals. It is free from force but not from
· Hard Determinism ­ behaviour's caused by factors outside of our control.
Free Will's an illusion, behav.'s totally predictable and determined.
· Psychological Resistance ­ reaction against attempts to restrict or control
one's choices and decisions. When one perceives strong pressure from
others to force a decision/an att. A `contrary' behav.'s likely to be
selected.…read more

Slide 6

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Nature-Nurture Debate
· Focuses on the importance of heredity, genetics,
physiological make-up, DNA, Evolution, Bio Approach
· Relative importance of environment, born as a blank
slate, learning, family, environment, influence after
· Skinner ­ `human behaviour could be conditioned'
· N&N effect each other and work together to cause a
behaviour/dermine a thought
· One can't function without the other
· E.G. Naturally aggressive person may become this in
their given environment.…read more

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