Slides in this set
· Everything's inevitable events determined before they occur
· The Future already exists can't be held responsible for anything.
· Output depends on the Input everything's an output
Biological Determinism - B.'s caused by biological factors. (genes, hormones,
Psychic Determinism B.'s caused unconscious forces. Freud Free will's an
illusion. (ID, Defence mechanisms, etc)
Environment Determinism B.'s caused by environmental factors. (S-R, etc)
· Compatible with scientific method assumes all behaviour has a cause &
obeys laws = predictability. False assumption that all predictions are as
accurate as possible many influences on behav., even Physicists have to
build uncertainty factors into their theories.
· Although compatible with the scientific method, it isn't falsifiable
reasons that if evidence hasn't been found then it will in the future, just
don't have the technology advances, yet.…read more
· We make our choices completely constraint-free
at our own digression can control own thoughts
· Hypothetical concept, can't be tested empircally.
Doesn't recognise ability to establish cause and
effect on human bahav. They think it's
inappropriate to study human behaviour with
science humans are unpredictable. E.G. Kick a
ball with force, know what'll happen. Kick a
human with force, don't know how they'd react.
Evaluation: - inconsistent with scientific method…read more
Soft Determinism element of free will, but within
constrained factors out of our control. E.G. Academic
· The Debate's about how control a person has over their
behaviour. FW=choice D=no choice
· 2 main categories: Internal (Bio and Psychic) and External
· Humanistic nearest to 1 can get to FW in psych
· `Soft D.' is the term used to convey idea that FW isn't
freedom from causation but from coercion. HD=more
extreme, embodying the idea that all behav. Is predictable
& caused by forces out of our control
· D. Combatable with Scientific method.
· FW & D overlap. Humanist Psychs lean to FW, but accept
the constraints on behav. And D accepts existance of
`uncertainty factors'…read more
Free Will & Determinism Key words:
· Internal Determinism belief in the internal causes of behaviours e.g.
Biological factors, unconscious mental processes
· External Determinism behaviour occurs due to an environmental cause
Behaviourist represent this extreme.
· Biological Determinism all behaviour and thought's caused by the
actions of the nervous system and genetic factors
· Psychic Determinism all behav. & thought's caused by unconscious
forces associated with the life and death instinct.
· Overdetermination belief that a single observed effect's determined by
multiple causes at once, any of which, may be enough to account for the
effect (associated with Freudian Determinism)
· Environmental Determinism behaviour as a result of environmental
control over stimuli and the external forces of rewards & punishments.
· Soft Determinism behaviour is determined/caused by a person's own
character, wishes/desired goals. It is free from force but not from
· Hard Determinism behaviour's caused by factors outside of our control.
Free Will's an illusion, behav.'s totally predictable and determined.
· Psychological Resistance reaction against attempts to restrict or control
one's choices and decisions. When one perceives strong pressure from
others to force a decision/an att. A `contrary' behav.'s likely to be
· Focuses on the importance of heredity, genetics,
physiological make-up, DNA, Evolution, Bio Approach
· Relative importance of environment, born as a blank
slate, learning, family, environment, influence after
· Skinner `human behaviour could be conditioned'
· N&N effect each other and work together to cause a
behaviour/dermine a thought
· One can't function without the other
· E.G. Naturally aggressive person may become this in
their given environment.…read more