The post-War Consensus - Society (AQA complete notes 4/16)

These notes are for the 'Making of Modern Britain' course on AQA and as such follow the spec, although would be useful for all modern britian courses. They contain hystoriography, detail and explanations. 

The notes are devided into the sections of the spec, therefore there are 16 documents (as there are 4 areas (politics, economics, society, and foriegn policy) and there are 4 periods (Post war, Wilson + heath, Thatcher, and Blair)). 

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  • Created on: 08-10-15 23:07
Preview of The post-War Consensus - Society (AQA complete notes 4/16)

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The
Post-War
Consensus?
1951-1964
­
Society
Social
tension:
1950s
unrest;
race
riots,
violence,
criminality
and
hooliganism;
selection
and
the
divisive
nature
of
secondary
education;
changes
in
attitudes
to
class
Society
in
1951
- Few
homes
owned
televisions,
which
were
black
and
white.
- Most
buildings
were
covered
in
sooty
air
pollution
- No
motorways
- Very
few
people
had
their
own
cars
- No
supermarkets
- Rationing
was
still
in
place
- Railways
reached
every
corner
of
Britain,
with
most
trains
steam
- Most
towns
and
cities
were
centred
around
heavy
industry
- Employed
women
were
frequently
single,
as
that
was
what
was
expected
- On
Sundays
Churches
were
full,
and
no
other
activity
was
done.
- Holidays
were
generally
twos
weeks
of
the
year,
spent
within
Britain
- Class
divide
was
clear
cut,
as
was
the
north
south
divide
- Housing
had
been
improved
by
Attlee's
widespread
housing
programme
with
a
priority
for
quality.
- Schooling
had
increased,
with
new
schools,
and
strong
education
policy.
- Nationalisation
meant
more
jobs
were
secured
and
bettered
paid.
- Welfare
state
meant
people
were
better
protected.
Demographics
- Rising
population
o Birth
rates
above
death
rates
o NHS
improved
health
o Welfare
state
helped
improve
nutrition
o Increasing
information
improved
nutrition
and
hygiene
o Inward
migration
! 676,000
moved
to
Britain
in
1950s
! 1.25
million
in
1960s
! Many
from
the
Irish
Republic
! Commonwealth
(from
1948)
· 250,000
from
Commonwealth
- Falls
in
population
o Outward
migration
! Countries
like
Australia
and
North
America
! Britain
lost
1.32
million
in
1950s
! 1.92
million
in
1960s
- Balance
of
population
o 1951
50,000
inward
o 1961
100,000
inward
Land
use
- Town
and
country

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Agriculture
was
main
industry
! Propped
up
by
subsidies
! Investment
did
help
though,
with
mechanisation.
· Output
increased
from
88
in
1950
to
129
in
1966.…read more

Page 3

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Government
change
o 1958
Life
Peerages
Act
allowed
people
to
be
granted
peerages
to
sit
in
the
house
of
Lords,
removing
the
absolutism
of
the
upper
class.
- Job
changes
o Non-manual
workers
change
from
20%
of
working
population
to
31.5%
by
1959.
! Men
was
22%
to
28%
! Women
16%
to
40%
(decrease
in
servants,
increase
in
typists)
Effect
of
the
war
- Rationing
continued
until
4th
July
1954.
- Men
spent
two
years
in
national
service.…read more

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Violence,
criminality
and
hooliganism
- Crime
rates
o From
1951-
1955
criminal
behaviour
fell
o Crime
more
than
doubled
between
1955
and
1965
o Examples
! Cray
twins
· Built
up
a
empire
of
clubs
and
`property
development'
· Met
with
celebrities
! Mods
Vs
Rockers
· Rockers
rode
motorcycles,
wore
leather
jackets
and
listened
to
rock
and
roll.
· Mods
rod
scooters,
wore
smart
suits,
listened
to
sophisticated
pop
music.
· Many
fights
occurred.…read more

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Anthony
Crosland,
Labour's
opposition,
began
the
plans
for
them.
o Edward
Boyle,
Education
Secretary
1962
to
1964
was
willing
to
consider
plans.
- 1962
Government
commissioned
Robbins
Report.
o This
led
to
massive
expansion
of
higher
education.
! 8
New
universities
had
already
been
build
by
1960
(pre-
report).
o Existing
universities
took
far
more
pupils.
o 11
New
Universities
were
established.
! E.g.
Warwick,
York,
Lancaster...
o Led
to
390,000
more
student
places
by
1973.…read more

Page 6

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Lady
Chatterly's
lover
was
republished,
causing
outcries
of
moral
decadence,
and
a
high
profile
count
case.
- Much
writing
seemed
to
be
critical
of
the
times
o John
Osborne's
play
`Look
back
in
anger'
he
railed
against
social
snobbery.
o John
Braine's
`Room
at
the
top'
showed
how
the
object
of
material
success
corrupted
a
person.
- Decline
in
domination
in
the
theatre
by
American
work.
- Satire
boom
o E.g.…read more

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Wage
increases
meant
people
were
more
free
to
spend
o Particularly
for
young
unmarried
men
- Supermarkets
increased
o Conservative
legislation
of
1964
allowed
supermarkets
to
out
price
corner
shops.
o Increase
in
supermarkets
from
300
to
5,000
between
1958
and
1972.
o Small
neighbourhood
stores
were
increasingly
replaced
by
chain
stores
and
shopping
centres,
with
their
wide
variety
of
goods,
smart-advertising,
and
frequent
sales.…read more

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