The End of Consensus - Politics (Modern Britain AQA complete notes 5/16)

These notes are for the 'Making of Modern Britain' course on AQA and as such follow the spec, although would be useful for all modern britian courses. They contain hystoriography, detail and explanations. 

The notes are devided into the sections of the spec, therefore there are 16 documents (as there are 4 areas (politics, economics, society, and foriegn policy) and there are 4 periods (Post war, Wilson + heath, Thatcher, and Blair)). 

Pages in this set

Page 1

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The
End
of
Consensus
­
Politics


The
role
of
key
personalities:
Wilson,
Heath
and
their
cabinets;
the
reasons
for

Labour's
defeat
in
1970
and
Conservative
defeat
in
1974;
the
emergence
of

Thatcher
as
Conservative
leader

Harold
Wilson
1964-1970

Background


- State
grammar
educated

o First
to
be
so

- From…

Page 2

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o Wilson
appeared
fresh.

! E.g.
Preferred
beer
to
wine.

- Wilson
was
a
strong
campaigner
and
held
the
party
together.

o Science
and
socialism.

- Bevan
and
Gaitskell
were
both
now
dead,
labour
party
divide
less
severe.

o Bevan
died
of
cancer
in
1960

o Gaitskell
died
of
a…

Page 3

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- 1964
Acts
allowed
local
Authorities
to
grant
pensioners
cheaper

transport.

- 1965
Capital
Punishment
suspended
for
5
years
(Murder
Act)

o 1969
Bill
ends
it
completely.

o Private
members
bill
(Silverman).

o Consequences

! 1960
283
Murders

! 1970
393
Murders

- Race
Relations
Act
1965
(was
limited
but…

Page 4

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o Lord
Chamberlain's
censorship
of
live
theatre
ended.

o Private
member
Bil
(George
Strauss)

- 1968
Commonwealth
Immigrants
Act

o 10,000
Kenyan
Asian's
came
in
two
weeks.

! Fleeing
their
persecution.


o Banned
UK
entry
to
UK
passport
holders
without
family
in
Britain.

o Done
to
benefit
only
White
British…

Page 5

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- 1965
Pensions
increased

- 1965
Sickness
and
unemployment
benefit
increased

- 1967
Redundancy
Payments
Act
provided
for
compensation
for
workers

made
redundant
through
no
fault
of
their
own.



Northern
Ireland

- Discrimination
was
taking
place
against
the
Catholic
(republican
1/3)

minority,
in
terms
of
welfare,
jobs
and
housing.

-…

Page 6

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o In
1968/1969
11.5
million
working
days
were
lost
due
to

industrial
action.
Nearly
three
times
the
rate
of
1964.


o Working
days
lost
to
strikes

! 1965
3
million

! 1969
7
million

- 1969
In
Place
of
Strife

o Barbra
Castle
wrote
the
paper
as
Employment
minister.

!…

Page 7

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o 1000
London
Dockers
marched
out
in
support
of
Enoch
Powell,

with
him
receiving
around
20,00
letters,
many
in
support.

- 1968
Commonwealth
immigration
Act

o James
Callaghan
said
7,000
East
African
Asians
had
come
during

the
past
three
months,
more
than
in
the
whole
of
1966.

! Kenyan
Asians…

Page 8

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o 1968
Ronan
Point
disaster
in
the
East
of
London.
Blocks
partially

collapsed.
4
people
died.


- Cutback
in
housing

o Between
1964-67
1,650,000
homes
begun.

o Between
1968-71
1,400,000
were
begun.





Historiography


- K.O
Morgan

o `Wilson's
skills
were
more
suited
the
politics
of
survival...
He

constantly
out-manoeuvred
the…

Page 9

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o `By
1969,
the
Labour
party
had
seen
its
new
version
of
British

socialism
collapse'.

- R.K.
Webb

o `It
was
not
mentioned,
much
that
the
Labour
government
did
was
a

continuation
of
initiatives
begun
in
the
preceding
Conservative

administration
­
use
of
consultative
machinery
NECD,
(...
added

"little
Neddys"),…

Page 10

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Edward
Heath
1970-74

Background

- Working
class
background

- Elitist
hobbies
-
Piano,
sailing
and
classical
music.

o Working
class
voter
not
a
big
fan.

- Dull
in
the
commons,
particularly
in
PMQs.

- Considered
to
be
a
`one
nation'
tory.



Political
strategy




- Election
won

o Gained
330
seats…

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