The End of Consensus - Politics (Modern Britain AQA complete notes 5/16)

These notes are for the 'Making of Modern Britain' course on AQA and as such follow the spec, although would be useful for all modern britian courses. They contain hystoriography, detail and explanations. 

The notes are devided into the sections of the spec, therefore there are 16 documents (as there are 4 areas (politics, economics, society, and foriegn policy) and there are 4 periods (Post war, Wilson + heath, Thatcher, and Blair)). 

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Preview of The End of Consensus - Politics (Modern Britain AQA complete notes 5/16)

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The
End
of
Consensus
­
Politics
The
role
of
key
personalities:
Wilson,
Heath
and
their
cabinets;
the
reasons
for
Labour's
defeat
in
1970
and
Conservative
defeat
in
1974;
the
emergence
of
Thatcher
as
Conservative
leader
Harold
Wilson
1964-1970
Background
- State
grammar
educated
o First
to
be
so
- From
Yorkshire,
with
accent.
- Initially
a
Bevanite,
but
more
moderate.
- Had
been
Shadow
Foreign
Secretary
and
Shadow
Chancellor.
Political
strategy
- Chose
cabinet
based
on
merit
rather
than
elitism.
o Most
1st
class
Oxbridge
degrees.
o 1
Women
­
Barbra
Castle
! Second
later
on
(Judith
Hart).
o Seemed
to
be
mainly
moderate.
- Took
advice
from
`Kitchen
cabinet'
o Included
political
secretary
`Marcia
Williams'
o Other
non-governmental
advisers
o Some
close
MPs.
o Seemed
to
be
the
centre
left.
- He
allowed
his
cabinet
to
just
talk.
- Tried
to
keep
the
party
united.
o Only
4-seat
majority.
! 13
more
than
conservatives.
o Gave
lefties
more
useless
departments
! Frank
Cousins
then
Tony
Benn
-Department
for
technology
o Many
of
newly
elected
MP
post-66
were
`new
left'.
! Out
of
control
of
Whips.
- Set
up
many
Cabinet
sub-committees
known
as
MISCs.
- Appeared
to
play
rivals
against
each
other.
o Callaghan
in
Exchequer
and
Brown
in
DEA.
- Had
an
election
in
1966
to
increase
majority
o Gained
majority
of
98
Seats
o 48%
of
the
vote.
o (Liberals
gained
12
seats,
Welsh
and
Scottish
Nationalists
one
each.)
Reasons
for
1964
Win
- Run
of
scandals
in
1962-63
- Sense
of
a
power
vacuum
following
Macmillan's
resignation.
- Societal
turn
away
from
the
old
establishment.
o Douglas-Home
appeared
to
be
this.

Other pages in this set

Page 2

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Wilson
appeared
fresh.
! E.g.
Preferred
beer
to
wine.
- Wilson
was
a
strong
campaigner
and
held
the
party
together.
o Science
and
socialism.
- Bevan
and
Gaitskell
were
both
now
dead,
labour
party
divide
less
severe.
o Bevan
died
of
cancer
in
1960
o Gaitskell
died
of
a
virus
infection
in
1963
- Liberal
revival
o Still
only
9
seats
o 11.2%
of
the
vote
o Voters
were
turning
away
from
the
Tories.
- Technology
preferred
to
foreign
policy.…read more

Page 3

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Acts
allowed
local
Authorities
to
grant
pensioners
cheaper
transport.
- 1965
Capital
Punishment
suspended
for
5
years
(Murder
Act)
o 1969
Bill
ends
it
completely.
o Private
members
bill
(Silverman).…read more

Page 4

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Lord
Chamberlain's
censorship
of
live
theatre
ended.
o Private
member
Bil
(George
Strauss)
- 1968
Commonwealth
Immigrants
Act
o 10,000
Kenyan
Asian's
came
in
two
weeks.
! Fleeing
their
persecution.
o Banned
UK
entry
to
UK
passport
holders
without
family
in
Britain.
o Done
to
benefit
only
White
British
(basically).
o Note:
Mrs
Ghandi
had
agreed
to
accept
Kenyan
Asians.
- 1970
Equal
Pay
Act
o 1975
added
to
with
Sex
discrimination
Act
(made
it
fully
effective).…read more

Page 5

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Pensions
increased
- 1965
Sickness
and
unemployment
benefit
increased
- 1967
Redundancy
Payments
Act
provided
for
compensation
for
workers
made
redundant
through
no
fault
of
their
own.
Northern
Ireland
- Discrimination
was
taking
place
against
the
Catholic
(republican
1/3)
minority,
in
terms
of
welfare,
jobs
and
housing.
- 1960s
Peaceful
protests
by
Catholics
and
fair-minded
protestants,
called
for
equality
for
social
rights.
- 1969
Attacks
on
Catholic
areas
became
increasingly
violent.
- British
Government
sent
in
troops
to
maintain
the
peace.…read more

Page 6

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In
1968/1969
11.5
million
working
days
were
lost
due
to
industrial
action.
Nearly
three
times
the
rate
of
1964.
o Working
days
lost
to
strikes
! 1965
3
million
! 1969
7
million
- 1969
In
Place
of
Strife
o Barbra
Castle
wrote
the
paper
as
Employment
minister.
! Barbra
castle
was
from
the
left
of
the
party,
and
believed
in
trade
unions.
o The
paper
proposed
! 28
day
period
between
a
strike
being
called
and
a
strike
taking
place.…read more

Page 7

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London
Dockers
marched
out
in
support
of
Enoch
Powell,
with
him
receiving
around
20,00
letters,
many
in
support.
- 1968
Commonwealth
immigration
Act
o James
Callaghan
said
7,000
East
African
Asians
had
come
during
the
past
three
months,
more
than
in
the
whole
of
1966.
! Kenyan
Asians
were
being
expelled
from
Kenya.
! Many
held
the
right
to
a
British
Passport.
o March
1968
acted
bill
that
placed
controls
on
UK
entry
for
passport
holders
with
no
substantial
connection
with
Britain.…read more

Page 8

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Ronan
Point
disaster
in
the
East
of
London.
Blocks
partially
collapsed.
4
people
died.
- Cutback
in
housing
o Between
1964-67
1,650,000
homes
begun.
o Between
1968-71
1,400,000
were
begun.
Historiography
- K.O
Morgan
o `Wilson's
skills
were
more
suited
the
politics
of
survival...
He
constantly
out-manoeuvred
the
Tories.
o `He
offered
a
no-nonsense,
classless
style
associated
with
modernisation.'
- Harold
Wilson
o `I
was
Pragmatic,
because
all
government
was
pragmatic.'
! Said
in
retrospect.…read more

Page 9

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By
1969,
the
Labour
party
had
seen
its
new
version
of
British
socialism
collapse'.
- R.K.
Webb
o `It
was
not
mentioned,
much
that
the
Labour
government
did
was
a
continuation
of
initiatives
begun
in
the
preceding
Conservative
administration
­
use
of
consultative
machinery
NECD,
(...
added
"little
Neddys"),
the
recommendations
of
investigative
bodies
Macmillan
had
appointed,
and
the
commitment
to
indicative
planning,
which
culminated
in...
the
National
Plan.'
o `Wilson
ran
his
government
in
an
extremely
casual
way.'
- William
D.…read more

Page 10

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Edward
Heath
1970-74
Background
- Working
class
background
- Elitist
hobbies
-
Piano,
sailing
and
classical
music.
o Working
class
voter
not
a
big
fan.
- Dull
in
the
commons,
particularly
in
PMQs.
- Considered
to
be
a
`one
nation'
tory.
Political
strategy
- Election
won
o Gained
330
seats
to
Labours
287
- Election
28
February
o Assumed
election
victory
o Conservatives
polled
more
votes
than
Labour,
they
gained
fewer
seats.
o It
was
a
`Hung
parliament'.…read more

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