The Post-War Consensus - Foreign policy (AQA complete notes 3/16)

These notes are for the 'Making of Modern Britain' course on AQA and as such follow the spec, although would be useful for all modern britian courses. They contain hystoriography, detail and explanations. 

The notes are devided into the sections of the spec, therefore there are 16 documents (as there are 4 areas (politics, economics, society, and foriegn policy) and there are 4 periods (Post war, Wilson + heath, Thatcher, and Blair)). 

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Preview of The Post-War Consensus - Foreign policy (AQA complete notes 3/16)

First 450 words of the document:

The
Post-War
Consensus?
1951-1964
­
Foreign
affairs
Britain's
declining
imperial
role;
the
Suez
Crisis
of
1956
and
the
`wind
of
change'
in
Africa;
the
reasons
why
Britain
did
not
join
the
EEC
between
1955
and
1963
Attlee
1945-51
Ernest
Bevin
(until
death)
followed
by
Herbert
Morison
Achievements
- 1947
Indian
independence
o India
was
to
be
divided
into
two
distinct
states:
India
and
Pakistan
in
1947.
- 1949
NATO
o Britain
was
key
in
the
establishment
of
it.
o A
defensive
alliance
consisting
of
10
Western
European
countries
as
a
safeguard
against
Soviet
expansion.
- Nuclear
power
o In
1947
the
Labour
government
initiated
research
that
led
to
the
detonation
of
a
British
atom
bomb
in
1952
and
Hydrogen
bomb
in
1957.
Issues
- 1950
Enter
the
Korean
War
o Angered
the
left
within
the
Labour
Party,
who
didn't
want
to
be
controlled
by
the
US.
- Nuclear
power
o Angered
left
of
the
party
later
on.
- Rejected
being
part
of
formation
of
EEC
o Reasoning
! Bevin
was
a
firm
patriot
! Bevin
thought
that
Britain
could
`develop
Africa'
,
and
thus
make
the
American's
`eat
out
of
Britain's
hands'
- Britain
had
to
withdraw
from
Greece,
Turkey
and
Palestine.
o Financial
reasons
(I
think).
Churchill
1951-55
Eden
­
Foreign
sectary
- Married
Churchill's
niece
in
June
1952.
o Churchill
was
often
said
to
be
ambivalent
towards
Eden
(Alan
Clark).
o Churchill
didn't
want
Eden
to
succeed
him.

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Ill
health
o While
off
ill,
Churchill
took
over
his
role,
which
induced
another
stroke
in
Churchill
in
1953.
Achievements
- 1952
-
Eden
signed
a
treaty
with
EDC.
o Extending
Britain's
military
support.
As
well
as
making
it
clear
Britain
would
work
with
the
EDC,
with
a
respective
from
Britain
in
constant
contact.
o Best
thing
short
of
joining,
which
pride,
prejudice
and
public
opinion
wouldn't
allow.…read more

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Reasoning
! British
attitudes
· Britain
didn't
wish
to
be
part
of
any
larger
political
body
that
couldn't
change
laws
above
the
government
· `splendid
isolationism
had
been
dominant
up
until
the
world
wars
! Due
to
Marshal
aid,
there
were
fewer
concerns
for
integration
after
the
war,
so
Britain
maintained
national
pride.
! Concerns
about
too
much
cooperation
with
Europe
being
damaging
to
the
nationalised
industries.
! Britain
want
to
keep
control
over
their
own
trade
arrangements.…read more

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Malaya
was
economically
important
as
a
producer
of
tin
and
rubber
o Further
changes
! Malaya
was
granted
independence
in
August
1957
- Nationalists
movements
in
other
colonies
in
Africa
and
the
West
Indies
o Events
! Increasing
calls
for
independence
! Tended
to
be
organised
and
on
a
large
scale
o Responses
! General
principle:
maintain
authority
for
as
long
as
possible.
To
keep
internal
dissent
to
a
minimum
by
increasing
indigenous
participation
in
the
political
process.…read more

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Churchill
cherished
the
`special
relationship'
with
the
USA.
He
was
half-American.
He
hoped
for
a
relationship
between
the
USA
and
the
Commonwealth.
He
thought
this
would
protect
the
world
from
the
USSR.
o "The
most
vital
role
of
the
prime
minister
is
to
give
a
sense
of
direction
to
the
government
and
to
the
country,
and,
in
these
terms,
Churchill
in
his
domestic
policy
did
not
fail.
...…read more

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Didn't
join
Europe
o Britain
was
offered
to
take
part
in
the
1955
Messina
conference
on
the
further
of
the
European
community,
but
pulled
out.
o Although,
in
October
1956
did
propose
OEEC,
a
free
trade
area
with
no
common
external
tariff
and
where
food
stuffs
were
excluded,
but
it
was
rejected.
o Historiography
! D.
Childs
describes
Britain's
failure
to
join
at
this
point
as
`missing
the
boat'
and
to
the
detriment
of
the
future
of
Britain.…read more

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October
Selwyn
Lloyd
and
Egyptian
foreign
minister
made
`Six
principles'
for
negotiation,
and
all
seemed
well,
but
compromise
was
not
on
the
cards
in
Britain.
o Sevres
Protocol,
24
October
1956,
signed
by
the
British,
French
and
Israel
to
effectively
create
a
war
in
the
Middle
East,
in
order
to
take
down
Nasser.
! This
was
an
advance
by
Israel.
!
The
idea
was
that
Britain
and
France
would
enter
to
prevent
aggression
between
Israel
and
Egypt.…read more

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British
expertise
were
required
for
things
like
oil
- Eden
didn't
even
have
a
pretence
left
o By
the
arrival
a
ceasefire
was
underway,
with
both
sides
having
agreed.
- There
was
no
prevention
of
USSR
involvement
o By
disturbing
Egypt
there
was
no
way
of
discouraging
states
from
speaking
to
the
USSR.
o In
fact,
it
disturbed
relations
with
the
west,
so
the
USSR
seemed
more
appealing.…read more

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A.
Wood
! Argues
the
main
positive
consequence
of
Suez
was
Edward
Heath
being
so
persistent
in
joining
the
European
Economic
Community'.
! Suez
proved
that
`the
sun
had
set
on
the
British
empire'.
Harold
Macmillan
1957-1963
Foreign
secretaries
- Selwyn
Lloyd
(Start-
July
1960)
- Earl
Douglas-Home
(July
1960-
October
1963)
Decolonisation
- Macmillan
gave
a
speech
to
the
South
African
parliament
in
Feb
1960
where
he
said
there
was
a
"wind
of
change
blowing
through
the
continent".…read more

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Reasons
for
decolonisation
- Economic
o Macmillan
set
up
at
`profit
and
loss'
account
for
each
colony
in
order
to
understand
the
cost
implications
for
Britain
of
giving
each
colony
independence.
o Although
analysis
was
inconclusive,
it
often
seemed
more
expensive
(at
least
in
the
short
term)
to
give
independence.
o Trade
with
colonies
became
less
significant
as
time
went
on.
! 1936
40%
imports
from
empire
and
half
exports
! 1960
40.2%
exports
! 1970
24.…read more

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