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The
Arctic
­
Large
case
study


Three
sections

1. Detail
on
all
areas

2. Notes
that
summaries
areas
(begins
at
word
`overview')

3. Case
studies





Biomes
and
Biodiversity



Definition

- "Biodiversity"
means
the
variability
among
living
organisms
from
all

sources
including,
inter
alia,
terrestrial,
marine,
and
other
aquatic

ecosystems
and…

Page 2

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- Animals:
27%
of
Marine
mammals,
1%
of
terrestrial
mammals,
15%
of

marine
birds,
10%
of
lichens.






Biomes

- The
Arctic
contains
three
terrestrial
biomes
and
one
marine
ecosystem.

o Boreal
forest
(also
know
as
taiga)

o Tundra

o Polar
deserts

o The
Arctic
Ocean


Boreal
forests


- Outline

o…

Page 3

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o Taigas
have
few
native
plants
besides
conifers.
The
soil
of
the
taiga

has
few
nutrients.
It
can
also
freeze,
making
it
difficult
for
many

plants
to
take
root.
The
larch
is
one
of
the
only
deciduous
trees

able
to
survive
in
the
freezing
northern
taiga.

o Shrubs
and
flowers,…

Page 4

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! Clear-cutting
involves
cutting
down
all
the
trees
in
a

designated
area.


! This
destroys
habitats
for
many
organisms
that
live
in
and

around
the
trees,
and
makes
it
difficult
for
new
trees
to

grow.
Clear
cutting
also
increases
the
risk
of
erosion
and

flooding
in
the
taiga.


! Without…

Page 5

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! However,
for
much
of
the
year
there
is
physiological

drought
as
the
moisture
is
frozen.

o Case
study:
Verkoyansk
is
situated
in
the
tundra
region
of
eastern

Russia.


! It
experiences
temperatures
below
freezing
for
much
of
the

year
so
that
the
majority
of
the
soil
layer
is
permanently…

Page 6

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! The
caribou
feed
mainly
on
mosses
and
lichens
during

winter
when
they
shelter
within
the
great
coniferous

forests.


! In
summer
they
migrate
in
huge
numbers
to
the
open

tundra
where
their
diet
is
supplemented
by
grasses.

! Caribou
have
large
spreading
hooves
that
allow
them
to

walk
on…

Page 7

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o In
the
southern
regions
of
the
Arctic,
the
surface
layer
above
the

permafrost
melts
during
the
summer
and
this
forms
bogs
and

shallow
lakes
that
invite
an
explosion
of
animal
life.
Insects
swarm

around
the
bogs,
and
millions
of
migrating
birds
come
to
feed
on

them.

- Threats


o…

Page 8

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o The
desert
vegetation
consists
of
algae,
lichens,
and
mosses.

Lichens
are
the
most
dominant
plants.


o
The
ground
is
bare
with
patchy
cover
of
lichens
and
mosses.

o Flowering
plants
are
also
seen
but
not
as
common.
It
only
contains

60
species
of
flowering
plants.

- Threats

o Whaling…

Page 9

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o Lion's
mane
jellyfish
are
abundant
in
the
waters
of
the
Arctic,
and

the
banded
gunnel
is
the
only
species
of
gunnel
(an
eel
like

fish)
that
lives
in
the
ocean.

o The
Arctic
Ocean
has
relatively
little
plant
life
except

for
phytoplankton.

!
Phytoplankton
are
a
crucial
part
of…

Page 10

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Walruses
also
use
it
as
a
place
to
rest
and
congregate,
so
its

!
absence
often
forces
them
to
overcrowd
shorelines
and

swim
greater
distances
to
reach
food.


o Reflects
sunlight

! Earth's
poles
are
cold
mainly
because
they
get
less
direct

sunlight
than
lower
latitudes
do.


! But
there's…

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