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Physiology

Defining fitness: - `the ability to carry out everyday activities without
undue fatigue.' or `the ability to meet the demands of your
environment or lifestyle.'

Defining health: - `a state of physical, social and mental well being
where we are free from disease.'

Components of fitness

Cardio respiratory endurance…

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Performers with high cardio respiratory endurance may possess the
following: -

Greater capillarisation of the alveoli and muscles
Greater concentration of red blood cells, and therefore haemoglobin,
in the blood, which helps transport the oxygen to the working
muscles.
A greater proportion of slow oxidative muscle fibers
Greater concentration of…

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E.g. sports performers requiring high levels of elastic strength include
sprinters, triple jumpers and gymnasts.

3. Strength endurance: - the ability of a muscle or group of muscles to
undergo repeated contractions and with stand fatigue.

E.g. sports performers including swimmers, rowers or Olympic kayakers

Tests for strength include: -…

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Determining factors include: -

High number of fast twitch glycolytic muscle fibers within muscle
High stores of phosphocreatine within the muscle. (fuel used to
help muscle contraction during very high intensity activities e.g.
sprinting
Highly effective lever systems, which put limbs into motion
quickly.

Tests for speed include: - 30m…

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Tests for agility include: -

Illinois agility run test
Hexagon jump test

Balance: - `The maintenance of the body's centre of mass over the
base of support.'

Static balance e.g. when a gymnast is stationary. Maintaining their centre
of mass over their base of support performing a handstand

Dynamic balance…

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Rhythm/synch ­ timing right and feeling the action e.g. strking a
moving ball



Test for coordination include: -

Alternate hand ball toss test
Light board test

Reaction time: - `the time taken to initiate a response to a given
stimulus'

Reaction time can be subdivided into: -

Simple reaction time…

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