First 338 words of the document:
English spoken language revision
Spoken language features
Non fluency features
Elision: the mixing of one or more sounds such as gonna
Ellipsis: the missing out of a part of grammatical structure such as `you
going to the party?' instead of `are you going to the party?'
Pauses: when all speakers stop talking for a short amount of time.
Hesitation: when a speaker falters in his/her speech
False starts: words or sentences that have been cut off mid-utterance.
Fillers: meaningless words to fill talk space and allow thought
Phatic talk: casual conversation to fill an awkward silence.
Vague: statements that sound imprecise such as `and so on' or `whatever'
Utterance: a spoken word, statement or vocal sound
Hedge: words or phrases which weaken the force with which something is
said such as `perhaps'
Tag questions: strings of words normally added to a declarative sentence to
make it into a question.
Turn taking: a turn is the time in which a single participant speaks
Repetition: repeating a word, phrase in a particular sentence
Back channel: acknowledgement or assurance
Adjency pair: socially acceptable pairs of standard conversation
Lexical choice: choice of words a speaker uses
Rhetoric: the use of exaggeration or display
Accent: the way in which the words are pronounced. These vary according
to the region or class of the speaker
Dialogue: conversation between 2 or more speakers
Volume: to convey significant information
Modes of address: how a speaker addresses another speaker, can be formal
Tone: the quality of the speaker's voice such as using a passionate, casual or
Intonation: the sound pattern of phrases and sentences pronounced by pitch
variation in the voice.
Overlap: when 2 or more speakers overlap their conversation.
Body language: expressing emotions or feelings through body movements