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GCSE Biology
SOME ASPECTS OF B7…read more

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Skeleton…read more

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Bones are rigid organs that form part of the endoskeleton of
vertebrates. They move, support, and protect the various organs of
the body, produce red and white blood cells and store minerals.
Bone tissue is a type of dense connective tissue. Bones come in a
variety of shapes and have a complex internal and external
structure, are lightweight yet strong and hard, and serve
multiple functions. One of the types of tissue that makes up bone is
the mineralized osseous tissue, also called bone tissue, that gives it
rigidity and a honeycomb-like three-dimensional internal structure.
Other types of tissue found in bones include marrow, endosteum
and periosteum, nerves, blood vessels and
cartilage. There are 206 bones in the adult
human body and 270 in an infant. The
largest bone in the human body is the
femur.…read more

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A joint is the location at which two or
more bones make contact. They are constructed to
allow movement and provide mechanical support,
and are classified structurally and functionally.…read more

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Muscles move on commands from the brain. Single nerve cells in
the spinal cord, called motor neurons, are the only way the brain
connects to muscles. When a motor neuron inside the spinal cord
fires, an impulse goes out from it to the muscles on a long, very thin
extension of that single cell called an axon. When the impulse
travels down the axon to the muscle, a chemical is released at its
ending. Muscles are made of long fibres connected to each other
long ways by a ratchet mechanism, the kind of mechanism that
allows the two parts of an extension ladder to slide past each other
and then lock in a certain position. When the chemical impulse from
the motor neuron hits the muscle, it causes to muscle fibres to
ratchet past each other, overlapping each
other more, so that the muscle gets shorter
and fatter. When the impulses from the
nerves stop, the muscle fibres slide back to
their original positions.…read more

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Muscle Structure (Diagram)…read more

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