Skill Acquisition (ALL NOTES)

I know its a HUGE file, but I typed up all my notes for this section, hope it helps! Should cover everything needed for this part of the exam

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  • Created on: 23-04-11 19:05
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SKILL
"The learned ability to bring about predetermined results with maximum certainty, often with the
minimum of time or effort or both." Knapp 1963
Types of Skill:
COGNITIVE SKILL: Skill which involves thought process and intellectual ability
Involves the use of a person's mental powers
EG
PERCEPTUAL SKILL: Skill which involves the detection and interpretation of information from the
environment
Interpreting and making sense of information coming via the senses
EG Spatial awareness
MOTOR SKILL: Skill which involves physical movement and muscular control
Smoothly executing physical movements and responses
EG
CHARACTERISTICS OF SKILLS
Skill is learned ­ it requires practice and experience. A skilful performer is one is one who can
reproduce successfully time after time, and discounts fluke performances.
Skill has an end result ­ the performer must know what this is, and the skill is based on a
technically sound model to achieve this
Skill results in economic and effective movement ­ A beginner many use a lot of energy and
not succeed. An experienced skilful performer looks fluent and controlled
A skilled performer makes appropriate decisions ­ skill is not just about being a good
technician, but being able to use the techniques at the right moment.
Skills used in sport are usually perceptual and motor skills ­ sometimes linked together and called
PYSCHOMOTOR SKILLS
CLASSIFICATION OF SKILLS
It is difficult to be specific about the characteristics of a skill, because many of them can change
depending on the situation in which the skill is performed.
Therfore, skill classification uses continua to allow us to illustrate that skills have characteristics to a
greater/lesser extent depending on the situation
Why classify skills?
It can help the teacher/coach identify certain aspects of the skill which is helpful when planning
how to teach it
You can break down specific events into specific, individual steps (e.g. Triple Jump)

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CONTINUUM ­ an imaginary line between two extremes
1) MUSCULAR INVOLVEMENT
Abilitiy
Characteristics of abilities
2) ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCE
3) PACING…read more

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The abilities and level of ability we are born with will, to an extent, the activities which we will
participate in as part of an active lifestyle.
SKILL IS THE APPLICATION OF ABILITY
SKILLS ARE LEARNED USING EXISTING ABILITIES
Schmidt defined ability as:
"an inherited relatively enduring trait that underlies or supports various kinds of motor and cognitive
activities or skills. Abilities are thought of as being largely genetically determined.…read more

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DISTRIBUTED PRACTICE
Rest intervals
Good for most skill learning, especially beginners and learners with low motivation/fitness
levels
Ideal for continuous, potentially dangerous or complex skills
Rest allows mental and physical recovery and opportunity for extrinsic feedback/mental practice
FIXED PRACTICE
A specific movement pattern is practiced repeatedly in the same environment
"skill drill"
Ideal for closed skills that require overlearning and have to become habitual (ie throwing)
Environment never changes
Overlearning: when the performer has already perfected the skill being learned but still carries on
practicing.…read more

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Focus on winning/being successful
LEARNING
Learning can be measured through performance tests
Test performance, practice, test again, practice, test again, practice, test again etc....…read more

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COGNITIVE
Goals are determined
Movements are jerky
Selftalk
Demands of movements require high attention
Improvement is rapid
Selective attention: the process of picking out and focusing on the relevant parts of the display.…read more

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Modifying the display in the learning environment: e.g. drawing marks in the discus circle to
show feet positions ­ focuses the learner's attention and reduces information overload ­ some
sports use brightly coloured equipment to help focus the learner's attention (e.g.…read more

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It is important that this form of guidance is removed as soon as possible so that the learner
does not become dependent on it
Disadvantages of manual and mechanical guidance:
The feel of the movement experienced with this guidance is different to the actual movement
and so the learner should not become too accustomed to this `adapted' feel
It's of limited value for the experienced learner
Designed to eliminate errors and so does not give the learner the opportunity to experience
and correct mistakes
Difficult…read more

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Comments

Amelia96

This is genuinely brilliant. All the notes are categorised. All summarised so it isn't page after page of every little detail. I've used it to do all my mind maps and revision notes for this side because I've lost loads of mine and it's been made so easy. It really is brilliant. I could do with this for all the sub sections in PE! :)

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