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SKILL

"The learned ability to bring about predetermined results with maximum certainty, often with the
minimum of time or effort or both." Knapp 1963

Types of Skill:

COGNITIVE SKILL: Skill which involves thought process and intellectual ability

Involves the use of a person's mental powers

EG

PERCEPTUAL SKILL: Skill which…

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CONTINUUM ­ an imaginary line between two extremes













1) MUSCULAR INVOLVEMENT









Abilitiy

Characteristics of abilities



2) ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCE














3) PACING










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4) ORGANISATION













5) CONTINUITY



















ABILITY

To learn a particular skill, you must have certain abilities that the skill relies on

EG to perform a handstand you need strength (to support the body weight) and balance

*SPECIFIC SKILLS REQUIRE SPECIFIC ABILITIES*

Abilities are:

Innate/genetically determined ­ we are born with abilities…

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The abilities and level of ability we are born with will, to an extent, the activities which we will
participate in as part of an active lifestyle.

SKILL IS THE APPLICATION OF ABILITY

SKILLS ARE LEARNED USING EXISTING ABILITIES

Schmidt defined ability as:

"an inherited relatively enduring trait that underlies…

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DISTRIBUTED PRACTICE

Rest intervals

Good for most skill learning, especially beginners and learners with low motivation/fitness
levels
Ideal for continuous, potentially dangerous or complex skills

Rest allows mental and physical recovery and opportunity for extrinsic feedback/mental practice



FIXED PRACTICE

A specific movement pattern is practiced repeatedly in the same environment…

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Focus on winning/being successful





LEARNING

Learning can be measured through performance tests

Test performance, practice, test again, practice, test again, practice, test again etc....

Different types of learning curve:

A

Steep curve, becomes shallower with time (quick
learning at first, then slower)


B

Constant and regular improvement in learning



C…

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1) COGNITIVE
Goals are determined
Movements are jerky
Selftalk
Demands of movements require high attention
Improvement is rapid

Selective attention: the process of picking out and focusing on the relevant parts of the display.
Important as irrelevant information is ignored



2) ASSOCIATIVE
Specific motor programmes developed
Consistency increases rapidly
Timing…

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Modifying the display in the learning environment: e.g. drawing marks in the discus circle to
show feet positions ­ focuses the learner's attention and reduces information overload ­ some
sports use brightly coloured equipment to help focus the learner's attention (e.g. sportshall)
Video footage and analysis ­ beginners can be…

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It is important that this form of guidance is removed as soon as possible so that the learner
does not become dependent on it

Disadvantages of manual and mechanical guidance:

The feel of the movement experienced with this guidance is different to the actual movement
and so the learner should…

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WHITING (1975)























STAGES:

1) STIMULUS IDENTIFICATION (INPUT)



Mainly a sensory stage where the stimulus is detected along with speed, colour, direction of
movement, and so on from the display

The display: The physical environment in which the learner is performing

Stimuli and cues: specific aspects of the display that are…

Comments

Amelia96

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This is genuinely brilliant. All the notes are categorised. All summarised so it isn't page after page of every little detail. I've used it to do all my mind maps and revision notes for this side because I've lost loads of mine and it's been made so easy. It really is brilliant. I could do with this for all the sub sections in PE! :)

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