Skill; Learned behaviour to bring about the pre- determined results with maximum certainty often with the minimum outlay of time, energy or both as a result of evaluating information and decision making.
skilled performance shares the same characteristics :-
- skill actions have an objective
- skill is learned not generic
- Skilled movements are economic and efficient (dont waste energy)
- Skilled action ma be describe as the use of a technique at the right time and place.
- Skilled actions are consistently succesful
- skilled actions are often the result of receiving and evaluating information and then making the correct decision.
Difference between skill and ability
Ability - Inherited, innate, stable traits that determine a person's potential to acquire skills, e.g. co-ordination, balance, agility, speed of reaction.
Simply, Abilities are generic, you are born with them and they only change due to growing and maturing. Where as skills are learned and improved.
Types of Abilities
To be able to take in information, recognise it and make sense of it.
The perceptual abilities that allows us to process the info in the display are:
- speed of perception
- being able to see various things in the display
- Analysing movement of other performer or object
- selecting the needed the stimuli.
genetic traits that help you 'percept' the environment like seeing things, knowing how to respond to certain things etc.
Types of Abilities
a series of genetically inherited traits that determine an individual's coordination, balance and speed of reactions.
They contribute to moving a limb or limbs successfully.
Motor abilities aid your movement by determining the essential abilities needed for it. like balance and coordination.
Type of skill
For us to act in a skilled way we must receive information from our environment, select relevant and irrelevant information and then understand the information we have received and attended to. We then use and select the correct physical response.
This uses 3 different skills :-
The use of the brain to reason and problem solve as a result of learning and experience.
Decision making skill.
Develops as we keep practising and learned from different situations.
Tennis play can play better against a player they have played before.
This is because the tennis player has learnt their opponents weaknesses and strengths. so they can change how they play and concentrate on certain movements to beat their opponent.
Player has DECIDED to change style of play because he has LEARNT from past exp.
Selecting, interpreting and making sense of the information from our senses.
built on perceptual abilities
developed as we mature and from practice.
we learn how to extract the relevant information from our environment and discard the irrelevant information.
e.g playing football at a full stadium. You learn to blank out the chants and shouts of the fans inside the stadium and concentrate on the shouts from you team players.
movement decided upon and controlled by the brain.
our movements, controlled by the brain towards a pre-determined goal or objective.
E.g. Learning to co-ordinate muscle contractions and relaxations in the leg to pass the ball.
skill analysis and classification concerned with 4 factors -
OPEN AND CLOSED CONTINUUM
- how much the performance of the skill is affected by the enviroment.
SELF PACED - EXTERNALLY PACED CONTINUUM
- how much control the performer has over the rate and the timing of the action.
GROSS - FINE CONTINUUM
- Level or precision or fine control the performer uses when performing the skill.
- whether it is possible to determine whether the movement has a clear start or finish.
OPEN AND CLOSED
Open skill - A skill that is affected by the environment, or performed in a dynamic changing situation or environment.
Closed skill - A skill that is performed in a stable, unchanging environment, where the environment has little or no impact on the performance of the skill.
External and Self
Externally paced skill - A skill that is performed when initiated by a stimuli in the environment. The rate at which the skill is performed is dictated by the factors in the environment.
Self Paced Skill - A skill that is performed with little dictation if any from the factors in the environment. Performer decided when the movement starts and the rate of it.
Gross and Fine
Gross Skill - A strong powerful movement requiring the use of the major muscle groups. Think as gross meaning all. All muscles groups are used.
Fine Skill - A small precise movement where high accuracy and coordination is shown using small muscle groups.
DISCRETE, SERIAL an CONTINUOUS
Discrete skill - movement with clear beginning and end.
Serial skill - series of specific movements (often discrete) chained together in a sequence
Continuous skill - No clear beginning or end. One end phase blends into the next phase.