Section 4: How did the cold war develop? 1943-56 Revion Notes

Revision Notes on section 4: How did the Cold War develop 1943-56 Edexcel

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Section 4 - how did the cold war develop? 1943-1956
What was the Cold War?
A war where no fighting actually takes place, however both sides were
involved in an arms race, military alliances, and the use of propaganda. It
was said to be a war of words.
Why did the Cold War begin? The break down of the Grand Alliance.
Before the Cold War began America and the USSR had worked together in
an alliance to defeat the Nazis. However once their common enemy was
defeated things became increasingly uneasy.
The Tehran Conference (1943)
Was designed to make plans for Europe after the Second World War. The
big three Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin agreed that the USSR should have
a sphere of influence to make sure that they would not be threatened by
any of its neighbouring countries. This was the same for Britain and
America, who would also have a sphere of influence, where capitalism would
be dominant. However they did not agree on a future for Germany, Stalin
wanted them to pay reparations, to make sure that Germany would never
again be a threat. But Roosevelt and Churchill believed that Germany should
be rebuilt, they thought that a peaceful Europe needed a prosperous
The Yalta Conference (1945)
Stalin agreed that Russian troops would help America defeat Japan
once Hitler had been defeated.
Roosevelt and Stalin agreed to the establishment of a communist
government in Poland
Agreed to establish the United Nations, an organisation committed to
maintaining peace
The Potsdam Conference (1945)
By the Potsdam conference, Roosevelt had died and was replaced by
Truman, who had a strong dislike for Stalin. Truman tested the first Atomic
Bomb before the conference and this made the tensions between the USA
and USSR worse, as Stalin was angry he had not been informed about it and
was scared that America now had the power to destroy cities with the push

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They agreed to ban the Nazi party and to try Nazi war
criminals, they also agreed to divide Germany into 4 sections, Britain,
France USSR and America. They also came to an agreement about
reparations, where each section would take reparations from their zone.
The USSR also went back on their world to establish a government that
included both capitalists and communists.…read more

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The Truman Doctrine suggested that America had a responsibility to
protect the world. Truman also committed himself to "containment" which
would mean to make ever effort to stop the spread of communism.
The Marshall Plan (1947)
The Marshall plan committed $13 billion of American money to rebuild the
shattered economies of Europe, Truman hoped that by doing this, counties in
a bad economic state would be less likely to turn to communism.…read more

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USA, Britain and France were ganging up on him, and
isolating him, and he was reluctant to let America have further influence
over Germany and didn't not want American troops stationed there. Stalin
also realised that Germany's most valuable economic resources were in the
West and feared that they could be used to wage war on the USSR.…read more

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Hungarian coal, oil and wheat were shipped to Russia while Hungarian
citizens were deprived of food
Non communist political parties were abolished
Russian officials controlled the government, police and army
Due to cominform popular political leaders and their supported were
Matyas Rakosi
Was Hungary's dictator from 1949 to 1956, he described himself as
"Stalin's best pupil". He imprisoned 387,000 and was responsible for
more than 2,000 deaths.…read more

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An new government under Janos Kadar was quickly made, to re-establish
control of Hungary.…read more


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