How did the Cold War develop 1943-56

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  • How did the Cold War Develop? 1943-1956
    • Communism vs Capitalism
      • Communism
        • Thought capitalism exploited the workers to make the rich even richer
        • -Capitalism only made some people rich by exploiting everyone else
        • -Individuals are not as strong as everyone working together for the same aim
        • -The state should take control of the economy and run it to benefit everyone
      • Capitalism
        • -Everyone should be free to make money for themselves
        • Individuals are better at deciding what to make/sell than the state
        • Trade between countries make everyone richer
        • Thought communism enslaved people to the state
      • Truman's concerns led to the Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan
        • Many countries in Eastern Europe had been liberated from Nazi rule by soviets.
          • Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan
            • Other countries (like Poland, Romania and Bulgaria) were too poor to combat communist revolutions in their own countries.
            • Europe was devastated after the war so countries had no money and hence communism seemed very appealing.
            • If Greece and Turkey became communist other countries would then follow.
            • Truman Doctrine: economic and military aid to help governments to combat communist takeovers.
              • The USA had to do this for in order to contain the spread of communism (containment)
            • Marshall Plan: $13bn from USA to help rebuild Europe. Also meant that countries must trade with the USA in order to get the money
              • Hoped to stop communism by giving people a stake in the capitalist system
              • 16 Western European countries took the money
              • The USSR criticised the Marshall plan as an attack on them
              • Led to Cominform and Comecon (by the USSR)
                • Cominform was set up by Stalin (1947) and encouraged communist parties in Western countries to block Marshall Plan assistance.
                • Comecon was set up Stalin (1949) and was the USSR's alternative to the Marshall Plan. It built up trade links between Comecon counties and prevented comecon countries from signing up to the Marshall Plan
                  • It included USSR, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Albania and (from 1950) East Germany aka the German Democratic Republic
                • Consequences: Western Europe was now in one camp that was linked to the USA through Marshall Aid and the US policy of containment of communism whilst Eastern Europe was another camp that was tied to the USSR as a satellite state and the USSr believed socialist revolution would spread worldwide.
              • "Mr President I have just come back from Europe and unless we help them the poverty, destruction and devastation will allow communism to flourish."
        • Europe was devastated after the war so countries had no money and hence communism seemed very appealing.
        • If Greece and Turkey became communist other countries would then follow.
        • Other countries (like Poland, Romania and Bulgaria) were too poor to combat communist revolutions in their own countries.
      • Churchill: "From Strettin to Trieste an iron curtain has descended across the continent of Europe"
    • Telegrams
      • The Novikov Telegram (Soviet ambassador about USA)
        • -Told Stalin that: the USA wanted world domination and was building up its military strength, the USSR was the only country left after the war that could stand up to the USA and the USA was preparing its people for war with the USSR
      • The Long Telegram
        • Told Truman that: the USSR saw capitalism as a threat to communism that had to be destroyed, the USSR was building its military power and that peace between a communist USSR and a capitalist USA was not possible
        • -George Keenan
    • Arms Race
      • 1945- USA drops two atomic bombs on Nagasaki & Hiroshima
      • 1949- USSR tests its first atomic bomb
      • 1952- USA develops the H-Bomb (hydrogen bomb)
      • 1953- The USSR develops the H-Bomb
    • Conferences
      • 3.Potsdam (1945)
        • Decisions were made on what to do with Germany: prosecute Nazis as war criminals, reduce the size of Germany by a quarter and divide Germany up temporarily into French, British, US and Soviet quarters. Reparations to be taken from each zone.
          • By Churchill, Stalin and Truman.
            • Truman was much more arrogant as he believed that the US had a superior weapon (the atomic bomb) whilst the others did not, and so was very bossy. This increased tensions as Roosevelt had been kinder.
            • Roosevelt had died in April 1945, so Truman was the new American president.
        • USSR agreed to free elections in countries in its sphere of influence as it thought people would vote for communism, but they did not.
          • Rigged elections; 'Got rid of' capitalist party leaders;....
            • Once in power, the communists shut down the opposition parties and each country became a single-party state.
      • 1. Tehran (1943)
        • Stalin wanted Allies to attack Germany and take pressure of the USSR. Churchill wanted this attack to be in the Balkans but Stalin objected; he believed the USSR should have influence in Eastern Europe whilst Britain and USA had influence in the West.
          • By, Churchill Stalin and Roosevelt.
      • 2.Yalta (1945)
        • Agreed that USSR would help defeat Japan, that all allies would work for democracy in Europe and that the UN would be set up to promote peace.
          • By Churchill, Stalin and Roosevelt
      • Tensions
        • 1. Churchill thought Germany should be rebuilt whilst Stalin thought Germany should pay heavy reparations so that it's never strong enough to start another war
        • 2. Poland
          • The USSR did no do as it promised, the government was supposed to include multiple political parties but actually was only a  communist democracy
            • Rigged elections; 'Got rid of' capitalist party leaders;....
              • Once in power, the communists shut down the opposition parties and each country became a single-party state.
    • The Hungarian Uprising
      • Hungary suffered a lot under Stalin's control
        • Food and industrial products were shipped off to Russia
          • Communism became very unpopular
            • Matyas Rakosi was a brutal ruler
            • Luckily, Stalin died and new Soviet leader, Khrushchev promised DESTALINISATION.
            • Hungarians started demonstratig against communist control
              • Khrushchev appointed a more liberal leader for Hungary: Imre Nagy
                • Luckily, Stalin died and new Soviet leader, Khrushchev promised DESTALINISATION.
                • Nagy wanted reforms which were: to leave the Warsaw Pact, No more communist government, free elections, democracy and UN protections from USSR
                  • Khrushchev refused these demands- if Hungary left the Warsaw Pact other countries would follow.
                    • Sent 200,000 Soviet troops into Hungary, as a results thousands were killed.
                      • Acted as a warning to other countries
                        • Nagy was tried and executed.
                      • Despite their promise, the US could not provide military aid as it would be a sign of war (which they did not want as both sides had nuclear weapons). But they did give Hungary money.
                        • Hungary was on its own against USSR so they had to give in.
                          • Soviet control retightened across the Eastern Bloc.
                    • Nagy was tried and executed.
        • Matyas Rakosi was a brutal ruler
  • Creation of Bizonia and Western Germany (USA+ Britain) which was included in the Marshall Plan.
    • Divisions
      • How did the Cold War Develop? 1943-1956
        • Communism vs Capitalism
          • Communism
            • Thought capitalism exploited the workers to make the rich even richer
            • -Capitalism only made some people rich by exploiting everyone else
            • -Individuals are not as strong as everyone working together for the same aim
            • -The state should take control of the economy and run it to benefit everyone
          • Capitalism
            • -Everyone should be free to make money for themselves
            • Individuals are better at deciding what to make/sell than the state
            • Trade between countries make everyone richer
            • Thought communism enslaved people to the state
          • Truman's concerns led to the Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan
            • Many countries in Eastern Europe had been liberated from Nazi rule by soviets.
              • Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan
                • Truman Doctrine: economic and military aid to help governments to combat communist takeovers.
                  • The USA had to do this for in order to contain the spread of communism (containment)
                • Marshall Plan: $13bn from USA to help rebuild Europe. Also meant that countries must trade with the USA in order to get the money
                  • Hoped to stop communism by giving people a stake in the capitalist system
                  • 16 Western European countries took the money
                  • The USSR criticised the Marshall plan as an attack on them
                  • Led to Cominform and Comecon (by the USSR)
                    • Cominform was set up by Stalin (1947) and encouraged communist parties in Western countries to block Marshall Plan assistance.
                    • Comecon was set up Stalin (1949) and was the USSR's alternative to the Marshall Plan. It built up trade links between Comecon counties and prevented comecon countries from signing up to the Marshall Plan
                      • It included USSR, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Albania and (from 1950) East Germany aka the German Democratic Republic
                    • Consequences: Western Europe was now in one camp that was linked to the USA through Marshall Aid and the US policy of containment of communism whilst Eastern Europe was another camp that was tied to the USSR as a satellite state and the USSr believed socialist revolution would spread worldwide.
                  • "Mr President I have just come back from Europe and unless we help them the poverty, destruction and devastation will allow communism to flourish."
          • Churchill: "From Strettin to Trieste an iron curtain has descended across the continent of Europe"
        • Telegrams
          • The Novikov Telegram (Soviet ambassador about USA)
            • -Told Stalin that: the USA wanted world domination and was building up its military strength, the USSR was the only country left after the war that could stand up to the USA and the USA was preparing its people for war with the USSR
          • The Long Telegram
            • Told Truman that: the USSR saw capitalism as a threat to communism that had to be destroyed, the USSR was building its military power and that peace between a communist USSR and a capitalist USA was not possible
            • -George Keenan
        • Arms Race
          • 1945- USA drops two atomic bombs on Nagasaki & Hiroshima
          • 1949- USSR tests its first atomic bomb
          • 1952- USA develops the H-Bomb (hydrogen bomb)
          • 1953- The USSR develops the H-Bomb
        • Conferences
          • 3.Potsdam (1945)
            • Decisions were made on what to do with Germany: prosecute Nazis as war criminals, reduce the size of Germany by a quarter and divide Germany up temporarily into French, British, US and Soviet quarters. Reparations to be taken from each zone.
              • By Churchill, Stalin and Truman.
                • Truman was much more arrogant as he believed that the US had a superior weapon (the atomic bomb) whilst the others did not, and so was very bossy. This increased tensions as Roosevelt had been kinder.
                • Roosevelt had died in April 1945, so Truman was the new American president.
            • USSR agreed to free elections in countries in its sphere of influence as it thought people would vote for communism, but they did not.
            • 1. Tehran (1943)
              • Stalin wanted Allies to attack Germany and take pressure of the USSR. Churchill wanted this attack to be in the Balkans but Stalin objected; he believed the USSR should have influence in Eastern Europe whilst Britain and USA had influence in the West.
                • By, Churchill Stalin and Roosevelt.
            • 2.Yalta (1945)
              • Agreed that USSR would help defeat Japan, that all allies would work for democracy in Europe and that the UN would be set up to promote peace.
                • By Churchill, Stalin and Roosevelt
            • Tensions
              • 1. Churchill thought Germany should be rebuilt whilst Stalin thought Germany should pay heavy reparations so that it's never strong enough to start another war
              • 2. Poland
                • The USSR did no do as it promised, the government was supposed to include multiple political parties but actually was only a  communist democracy
            • The Hungarian Uprising
              • Hungary suffered a lot under Stalin's control
                • Food and industrial products were shipped off to Russia
                  • Communism became very unpopular
                    • Hungarians started demonstratig against communist control
                      • Khrushchev appointed a more liberal leader for Hungary: Imre Nagy
                        • Nagy wanted reforms which were: to leave the Warsaw Pact, No more communist government, free elections, democracy and UN protections from USSR
                          • Khrushchev refused these demands- if Hungary left the Warsaw Pact other countries would follow.
                            • Sent 200,000 Soviet troops into Hungary, as a results thousands were killed.
                              • Acted as a warning to other countries
                                • Despite their promise, the US could not provide military aid as it would be a sign of war (which they did not want as both sides had nuclear weapons). But they did give Hungary money.
                                  • Hungary was on its own against USSR so they had to give in.
                                    • Soviet control retightened across the Eastern Bloc.
          • Berlin Blockade
            • In retaliation, USSR had 1.5 million troops in its zone (in a blockade) whilst Western countries had sent most of their troops home. They did this as East Germany grew almost all the food that West Germany ate. Furthermore, Berlin was in USSR controlled Germany (although it was divided into four zones itself)
              • "Berlin is an island of capitalism in a sea of communism"
            • Wanted to show the USSR had the power to stop a divided Germany working.
          • Led to the formation of Trizonia in 1948 when France agreed to join.They even had their own currency... 'Deutschmark'

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