Part One: How did the Cold War develop? 1943-56

Includes...

The origins of the Cold War, the early Cold War 1945-47, the Berlin Crisis and its aftermath and the Hungarian Uprising.

The Teheran, Yalta and Potsdam Conferences

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Part One: How did the Cold War develop? 1943-1956


The origins of the Cold War
Main features of the Cold War

-Spying: to find out any military developments

-Loans and Aid: to win other countries support

-Arms Race: wanted more weapons than the other

-Propaganda: create worst possible image of…

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-were able to reach key decisions

AGREEMENTS

-divide Germany and Berlin into four sections (USSR, USA, GB and FR)

-try Nazi war criminals

-free elections in liberated countries

-Eastern Europe would be Soviet sphere of Influence

STRAINS

-Stalin wanted Germany to pay a lot in reparations (GB and USA didn't)…

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The early Cold War 1945-47
Why did the USSR expand?

STRATEGIC IMPTNCE OF POLAND: USSR's security depended on a friendly Polish govt. Moving the
frontier meant most of Poland became part of the USSR

PERCENTAGE DEAL: towards the end of the war, Stalin believed Churchill was accepting the USSR
influence…

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Cominform ­ 1947

- Communist Information Bureau

- enabled USSR to co-ordinate Communist parties throughout Europe.

- ensured that the states in Europe... followed Soviet aims in foreign policy and followed Soviet style
economic policies.

-purged any members that disagreed with Moscow (e.g. Tito in Yugoslavia)

Comecon ­ 1949

-…

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-Greek govt defeated communists

-USA more involved in European affairs

-Stalin set up COMINFORM




The Marshall Plan

WHY

-backed up the Truman Doctrine

-Truman thought poor countries were more likely to turn to communists

-create more markets for US goods

FEATURES

-offered aid to all war-torn countries

-helped re-equip factories…

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The Berlin Crisis and its aftermath
Long term causes

-Clear differences between the Soviet and Western zones

-Communist party couldn't gain control of Berlin Council Socialist majority

-USSR stopped trade with other three zones (wanted Germany weak to prevent invasions)

-Berlin in heart of Soviet zone Capitalist ways shown off…

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3. Airlifts began 28th JUNE. Thought they were going to get shot down
4. This continued for 10 months "Operation Plainfare"
5. Flew day and night landing every 90secs but still not enough supplies
6. USSR placed weather balloons in awkward places making it hard to land
7. Truman put…

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Korean War ­ 1950-55

-North Korea was communist (supported by USSR and China) and South Korea backed by USA

-North invaded South in 1950

-Truman saw domino theory become reality




Joe McCarthy

-caused anti-communist hype in America

-accused high officials in America of being spies and communists



The Arms Race…

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The Hungarian Uprising
Why did it happen?

Hungary after WW2

-The Control Commission (USA, USSR and UK) ran Hungary, though USSR had most influence

-a new Provisional Govt set up and paid $300million in reparations to USSR

-Nov 1945 elections, Communists didn't win (only 17%)

-Head of Soviet occupying forces…

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Feb 1956: Khrushchev's "secret speech" ­ attacked Stalin

Jul 1956: Rakosi forced from power on orders from Moscow, Gero takes over

Oct 1956: victims of Rakosi's purges were reburied

23 Oct 1956: Students demonstrated in Budapest demanding free elections, free press and
withdrawal of Soviet troops. Stalin's statue pulled down…

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