Part One: How did the Cold War develop? 1943-56

Includes...

The origins of the Cold War, the early Cold War 1945-47, the Berlin Crisis and its aftermath and the Hungarian Uprising.

The Teheran, Yalta and Potsdam Conferences

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  • Created by: beth.ryd
  • Created on: 14-06-12 16:41
Preview of Part One: How did the Cold War develop? 1943-56

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Part One: How did the Cold War develop? 1943-1956
The origins of the Cold War
Main features of the Cold War
-Spying: to find out any military developments
-Loans and Aid: to win other countries support
-Arms Race: wanted more weapons than the other
-Propaganda: create worst possible image of the other country
-Space Race: competed for first satellite, man in space + on moon.
(Spells "SLAPS" ­ way to remember)
The Teheran Conference
-Roosevelt wanted improved relations + meeting mainly success for Stalin.
AGREEMENTS
-The UN was to be set up after the war.
-Open a 2nd front in France
-USSR to wage war against Japan
-USSR to get area of Eastern Poland
STRAINS
-Churchill was suspicious of Stalin and his motives (against Bolshevik Revolution)
-Stalin annoyed that the 2nd Front was delayed (thought GB and FR were making them suffer)
-Stalin thought USSR should control all of Poland
-USSR didn't help Poland in Warsaw Uprising
The Yalta Conference

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AGREEMENTS
-divide Germany and Berlin into four sections (USSR, USA, GB and FR)
-try Nazi war criminals
-free elections in liberated countries
-Eastern Europe would be Soviet sphere of Influence
STRAINS
-Stalin wanted Germany to pay a lot in reparations (GB and USA didn't)
-Stalin wanted more control of Poland
The Potsdam Conference
-Roosevelt replaced by Truman who distrusted Stalin and Churchill replaced by Atlee
AGREEMENTS
-to demilitarise Germany
-re-establish democracy in Germany
-Germany had to pay reparations to the Allies
-ban the Nazi Party…read more

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The early Cold War 1945-47
Why did the USSR expand?
STRATEGIC IMPTNCE OF POLAND: USSR's security depended on a friendly Polish govt. Moving the
frontier meant most of Poland became part of the USSR
PERCENTAGE DEAL: towards the end of the war, Stalin believed Churchill was accepting the USSR
influence in E. Europe.
EXPANSIONISM: GB, FR and USA believed motives were political (spread communism throughout
Europe)
MEMORY OF WHAT HAPPENED 1918-39: most E .European countries had been hostile to the USSR.…read more

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Cominform ­ 1947
- Communist Information Bureau
- enabled USSR to co-ordinate Communist parties throughout Europe.
- ensured that the states in Europe... followed Soviet aims in foreign policy and followed Soviet style
economic policies.
-purged any members that disagreed with Moscow (e.g. Tito in Yugoslavia)
Comecon ­ 1949
- Council for Mutual Assistance
- supposed to be a means for the USSR to financially support countries
-BUT was used to control economies of these states
-give USSR access to their resources
-encourage economic specialization.…read more

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Greek govt defeated communists
-USA more involved in European affairs
-Stalin set up COMINFORM
The Marshall Plan
WHY
-backed up the Truman Doctrine
-Truman thought poor countries were more likely to turn to communists
-create more markets for US goods
FEATURES
-offered aid to all war-torn countries
-helped re-equip factories + revive agriculture
-countries agreed to US goods if US business could buy into their industries
EFFECTS
-$17 billion provided for economies + standard of living
-Europe more firmly divided ­ Stalin didn't trust USA…read more

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The Berlin Crisis and its aftermath
Long term causes
-Clear differences between the Soviet and Western zones
-Communist party couldn't gain control of Berlin Council Socialist majority
-USSR stopped trade with other three zones (wanted Germany weak to prevent invasions)
-Berlin in heart of Soviet zone Capitalist ways shown off to eastern zone
Short term causes
-western Allies continued with economic growth of their zones
-West received large quantities of Marshall Aid
-free elections were set up
-USSR feared a strong reunited Germany big contrast…read more

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Airlifts began 28th JUNE. Thought they were going to get shot down
4. This continued for 10 months "Operation Plainfare"
5. Flew day and night landing every 90secs but still not enough supplies
6. USSR placed weather balloons in awkward places making it hard to land
7. Truman put B-29 bombs in Britain
8. USSR tried to persuade people to move to East Germany
9. Deliveries reached their peak in April 1949 ­ still not enough
10.…read more

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Korean War ­ 1950-55
-North Korea was communist (supported by USSR and China) and South Korea backed by USA
-North invaded South in 1950
-Truman saw domino theory become reality
Joe McCarthy
-caused anti-communist hype in America
-accused high officials in America of being spies and communists
The Arms Race
-both countries had atom bomb so poured money into bigger bombs
-USSR scientists' pay trebled
-Truman wanted H-bomb to be built (1953)
-defence spending was increased
-USSR retaliated by increasing their own spending
Stalin's Death…read more

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The Hungarian Uprising
Why did it happen?
Hungary after WW2
-The Control Commission (USA, USSR and UK) ran Hungary, though USSR had most influence
-a new Provisional Govt set up and paid $300million in reparations to USSR
-Nov 1945 elections, Communists didn't win (only 17%)
-Head of Soviet occupying forces refused to allow this so established a coalition govt.…read more

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Feb 1956: Khrushchev's "secret speech" ­ attacked Stalin
Jul 1956: Rakosi forced from power on orders from Moscow, Gero takes over
Oct 1956: victims of Rakosi's purges were reburied
23 Oct 1956: Students demonstrated in Budapest demanding free elections, free press and
withdrawal of Soviet troops. Stalin's statue pulled down
Key Features of the Uprising 1956
23rd October: Demonstrations start
25th October: Soviet troops sent into Hungary to restore peace.…read more

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