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Psychopathology: Schizophrenia

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Introduction to Schizophrenia:
Schizophrenia means split mind because there is a loss of contact with reality, disturbances of thought process and
emotion/behaviour. In order to be diagnosed with schizophrenia, you have to meet certain criteria using diagnostic
tools: the DSM-IV (American psychiatric association) and ICD-10 (World Health Organisation). There…

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Reliability is the extent to which different psychiatrists can agree on the same diagnosis when assessing patients. The
existence of classification systems is claimed to lead to increased agreement in diagnosis of schizophrenia. However
as there is more than one classification systems used in different parts of the world,…

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schizophrenia can be split into the rule of thirds. One third of patients will have a few acute episodes and then
make a full recovery, one third will have periodic acute episodes throughout their life followed by a period of
remission, and the final third will show progressive deterioration with…

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Biological Explanations of Schizophrenia:
Genetic Factors:
It is likely that schizophrenia can be passed on from parents to their children via genes. Genetic studies involve family
studies, adoption studies and twin studies.
1. Family Studies: looks at those with schizophrenia and determines whether their biological relatives a similarly
affected more…

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twins could be due to the fact that they are treated more similarly that DZ twins. The results are correlations which
means that a cause and effect relationship can't be established
o Instead of stating whether schizophrenia is as a result of nature or nurture, we can combine the two…

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Biological Therapies for Schizophrenia:
Antipsychotic Medication:
Antipsychotic drugs block the action of neurotransmitter that bring about the symptoms of schizophrenia (block the
effect of dopamine) and helps the individual to function more effectively. There are two types of drugs: conventional
(used to primarily combat the positive symptoms) and atypical (also…

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0.6amps through these electrodes. This will result in producing a seizure which lasts up to one minute however, to
prevent fractures; the individual will be sedated and given a muscle relaxant before the treatment. This treatment is
required for around 3 to 15 times.
Tharyan and Adams (2005) conducted a…

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Psychological Explanations for Schizophrenia:
Psychodynamic Approach:
Freud believed that schizophrenia is as a result of regression to a pre-ego state and attempts to re-establish ego
control (prior to the ego developing, a child is ruled by the id (the selfish desires) so schizophrenia represents a
regression to this time). If…

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Frith (1992) said that cognitive deficits are caused by abnormalities in the areas of the brain that use dopamine and
showed that schizophrenics have reduced cerebral blood flow to these areas during certain cognitive tasks.

AO2 Evaluation Points:
Cause and Effect: individuals with schizophrenia clearly have disordered thinking but we…


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