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1. Definition of the application and key terms
Clinical Psychology : The branch of applied psychology that deals with understanding mental
health and illnesses, such as Anorexia Nervosa. Sometimes referred to as `abnormal psychology'
as it is concerned with the study of behavior that is not regarded as `normal'.


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illustrated by the over diagnosis of schizophrenia amongst the Afro-Caribbean
population in the UK.

Schizophrenia :A very mental illness that can affect the way someone speaks, thinks and feels to
such a degree that they lose focus on reality. Disruption in language, cognition and emotions.

Reliability :A measure of whether…

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research method, design, data to check for reliability
etc. and validity.

Expensive compared with Likely to be gathered to suit
secondary data because the some other aim, so may not
data has to be gathered be valid for the purpose of
from scratch. the study.
Limited to the time,…

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repeated with different Ps (or even the same Ps) and there is no such link found, then the results
lack reliability.

Such issues are important in clinical psychology, particularly with regard to diagnosing mental
disorders. If one doctor diagnosis someone with depression and another gives the diagnosis of
anxiety then…

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Study using twin studies: Gottesman and Shields (1966) (SmartALevels)
Aims :To see if whether schizophrenia had a genetic basis. Using a twin study methodology,
Gottesman and Shields planned to test different twin pairs to investigate the concordance rates
of schizophrenia in twins. They also wanted to replicate other studies that…

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Category 2 ­ both had hospitalisation, but the co-twin had been given another diagnosis
related to schizophrenia

Category 3 ­ the co-twin had some psychiatric abnormality, but nothing related to

Category 4 ­ proband had schizophrenia, but the co-twin was diagnosed as clinically normal

MZ Twins DZ Twins

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However, as twins in the monozygotic twin pairs did not have 100% concordance rates, the
implication is that schizophrenia is not caused entirely by genes. Instead, the results led
Gottesman and Shields to believe that genetic factors do predispose someone to schizophrenia,
by lowering their threshold for coping with stress,…

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and the right to withdraw. The respondent will also be told something about the interview and
what the purpose is.

Evaluation of interviews

Strengths Weaknesses
Unstructured interviews are useful
for obtaining qualitative data
The interviewer may affect the
because there can be exploration of
findings because of the way the…

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number of re-hospitalisations and the lengths of each stay in hospital.
Results and analysis :The main part of the study was to look at gender differences. Goldstein
looked at gender and the number of re-hospitalisations, gender and lengths of stay in hospital
each time, and them gender against these two…


Zoya Khan


Thank you! This has been a treasure!

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