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Definition of the application and key terms
Clinical Psychology : The branch of applied psychology that deals with understanding mental
health and illnesses, such as Anorexia Nervosa. Sometimes referred to as `abnormal psychology'
as it is concerned with the study of behavior that is not regarded as `normal'.
Abnormality (and why it is difficult to define):Anything that is not considered as a desirable
behavior within a society.…read more

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population in the UK.
Schizophrenia :A very mental illness that can affect the way someone speaks, thinks and feels to
such a degree that they lose focus on reality. Disruption in language, cognition and emotions.
Reliability :A measure of whether replications would produce similar results. If they do then the
study is reliable.
Validity :A valid test that measures what it claims to measure. There are many different types of
validity, including popularity, face, ecological, etc.…read more

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Expensive compared with Likely to be gathered to suit
secondary data because the some other aim, so may not
data has to be gathered be valid for the purpose of
from scratch. the study.
Limited to the time, place When analysed to be
and number of Ps, etc., presented as results, there
whereas secondary data can may have been subjectivity.
come from different sources May have been gathered
to give more range and some time before, so not in
detail. the relevant time period.…read more

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Ps (or even the same Ps) and there is no such link found, then the results
lack reliability.
Such issues are important in clinical psychology, particularly with regard to diagnosing mental
disorders. If one doctor diagnosis someone with depression and another gives the diagnosis of
anxiety then that person would not think that they had been reliably diagnosed. The reliability
of diagnosis is important for the individual, as treatment depends upon the diagnosis.…read more

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Study using twin studies: Gottesman and Shields (1966) (SmartALevels)
Aims :To see if whether schizophrenia had a genetic basis. Using a twin study methodology,
Gottesman and Shields planned to test different twin pairs to investigate the concordance rates
of schizophrenia in twins. They also wanted to replicate other studies that had indicated a
genetic basis to the disorder, to find if their findings would be similar (to test for reliability).…read more

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Category 2 ­ both had hospitalisation, but the co-twin had been given another diagnosis
related to schizophrenia
Category 3 ­ the co-twin had some psychiatric abnormality, but nothing related to
Category 4 ­ proband had schizophrenia, but the co-twin was diagnosed as clinically normal
MZ Twins DZ Twins
Category: Number % Number %
1 10 42 3 9
1 and 2 13 54 6 18
1,2 and 3 19 79 15 45
4 5 21 18 55
Total: 24 100 33 100
Categories 1,2…read more

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However, as twins in the monozygotic twin pairs did not have 100% concordance rates, the
implication is that schizophrenia is not caused entirely by genes. Instead, the results led
Gottesman and Shields to believe that genetic factors do predispose someone to schizophrenia,
by lowering their threshold for coping with stress, but environmental triggers may also be
needed to actually start the development of the disorder. They said the diathesis-stress model
best fit this explanation, taking on board a biological and environmental explanation.…read more

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The respondent will also be told something about the interview and
what the purpose is.
Evaluation of interviews
Strengths Weaknesses
Unstructured interviews are useful
for obtaining qualitative data
The interviewer may affect the
because there can be exploration of
findings because of the way the
the issues and the respondent is able
questions are asked, the way he or
to use their own words and ideas.
she is dressed or other characteristics.
The qualitative data offered by
This is known as interviewer bias .…read more

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Results and analysis :The main part of the study was to look at gender differences. Goldstein
looked at gender and the number of re-hospitalisations, gender and lengths of stay in hospital
each time, and them gender against these two features of the course of the illness and other
features, such as premorbid factors and social functioning. She carried out complex analyses and
separate these different features and to study their effects on one another.…read more


Zoya Khan

Thank you! This has been a treasure!

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