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Clinical characteristics: symptoms
· Perceptual symptoms
Hallucinations: sensing things that are not there
· Social symptoms
Social withdrawal: not taking part or enjoying social situations
· Cognitive symptoms
Delusions: believing things that are not true
Thought disturbances: believing that someone is either inserting/removing
thought or even reading their thoughts
Language impairments: irrelevant or incoherent speech
Affective/emotional symptoms
Depressive symptoms: a lack of energy and interest in everyday life
Lack of emotion: not reacting to typically emotional situations
Inappropriate emotions: reacting in an inappropriate way…read more

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These symptoms can be divided into
two different groups...
TYPE 1 = POSITIVE TYPE 2 = NEGATIVE There is also...
SYMPTOMS SYMPTOMS Secondary symptoms which
These are symptoms that These symptoms which are experienced as a result
are rare in normal and are much less dramatic of the disorder (i.e. Difficultly
everyday experiences. and can be experienced maintaining relationships)
in everyday life.
Positive Negative Secondary
· Delusions · Social withdrawal · Depressive
· Hallucinations · Lack of emotion
· Language impairments
· Stereotyped behaviour
· Psychomotor
disturbances
· Thought disturbances…read more

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Systems used to classify schizophrenia: ICM and DSM
Diagnosing schizophrenia
· Two or more symptoms present
· Disturbance must last more than 6
months
· The symptoms must have produced
a marked decrease in functioning in
work, in social relations and in self
care.…read more

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Subtypes of schizophrenic disorder
Subtypes of schizophrenia Description
1. Paranoid Delusions of grandeur and/or persecution.
Less noticeable than other subtypes.
2. Catatonic Excitable and occasionally aggressive. At
other times they may be mute and adopt
statue-like poses.
3. Disorganised Suffers experience auditory hallucinations,
delusions, thought process disorders and
disturbances of affect.
4. Residual Sufferers will have exhibited symptoms
previously but are not doing so at present .
5. Undifferentiated For sufferers who show multiple subtypes or
do not fit any
6. Simple (ICD ONLY) Slow gradual onset in late adolescence with a
decline in academic/occupational
performance.
7. Post-schizophrenic depression (ICD ONLY) Subtype for schizophrenics meeting criteria
for disorder in last year but not at present
but have exhibited severe symptoms.…read more

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RELIABILITY: how far does the same
classification system produce the same
diagnosis of symptoms each time?
· Beck et al (1962) ­ reported 54% concordance rate between
experienced practitioners' diagnosis when assessing 153 patients.
Soderber et al found an 81% concordance rate when using most
up-to-date DSM classification system
· Nilsson et al. (2000) found a 60% concordance rate between
practitioners using ICD system ­ this implies DSM is more reliable.
· Seto (2004) found that the term schizophrenia has been replaced
by the phrase "integration disorder" in Japan ­ suggesting
schizophrenia does not exist as a separate and identifiable
disorder there.
· Rosenhan had 193 patients admitted into hospital over a 3 month
period (the hospitals were warned that a number of pseudo-
patients would try and gain admittance.) Of these 193, 41 were
identified as fakes and 42 were suspected of being fakes. All were
genuine patients. Reliability of diagnosing schizophrenia is poor.…read more

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