Schizophrenia A2 AQA Psychology

Schizophrenia A2 AQA Psychology

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  • Created on: 04-01-13 19:40
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CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA
Kurt Schneider (1959) divided the symptoms of schizophrenia into two
categories: Positive behaviours (additional abnormal behaviours) & Negative
behaviours (lack of normal behaviours)
Hallucinations ­
Auditory Hallucinations ­ hearing
voices saying things when no one
is really there
Visual Hallucinations ­ seeing
things/people that are not
present or real
Tactile Hallucinations ­ feel
people touching them
Delusions ­
Thought Broadcasting ­ the idea that an external force is broadcasting
the individuals thoughts
Thought Insertion ­ an external force makes the individual think
something is distasteful/unwelcome
Delusions of Control ­ not being in control of their actions
Delusions of belief ­ the individual believes they are someone
powerful/important i.e. The Queen
Persecutory Delusions ­ the individual believes people are out to harm
them.
Incoherent Speech:
Speech is rambling or sparking off in different directions. This
leads to the person becoming more isolated.
Catatonic Behaviour:
The individual makes characteristic movements that are
repetitive or purposeless. Sometimes an individual may stand
in one place for hours.
Negative Symptoms:
FLATNESS OF EFFECT ­ Lack of emotion when speaking or in response,
showing wrong emotions.
POVERTY OF SPEECH ­ Answering with a meaningless phrase
ANHEDONIA ­ Not being able to react to pleasure or enjoy experiences

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DIAGNOSIS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA
There are TWO MANUALS used to
diagnose schizophrenia:
The first is: ICD which is used in Europe &
internationally. It explains that
schizophrenic people are those who show 1
serious symptom or 2 less serious
symptoms for a month or more
The second is: DSM ­ IV which is used in
America ­ it adds other types of
behaviours to the ICD manual.…read more

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ISSUE (A01) CONSEQUENCE (A02) SOLUTION (A02)
Countries using different This can lead to cases of Create 1 manual that is used in
diagnostic manuals. Cooper misdiagnosis, so patients will every country to improve
et al. found that people are be given the wrong drug inter-rater reliability. It will also
twice as likely to be treatment which may harm increase validity of SZ diagnosis
diagnosed as SZ in NYC than their heath and lead them to
in the UK. develop other illnesses e.g.…read more

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THE DOPAMINE HYPOTHESIS
The original dopamine hypothesis states that the brain of
a SZ patient produces more dopamine than the brain of
a `normal' person.
It is now thought that SZ patients have an abnormally
high number of D2 receptors. Dopamine receptors are
known to play a key role in guiding our attention &
perception. Therefore too much dopamine could link to
overactive/delusionary attention & perception.…read more

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GENETICS
Genes determine our natural make-up, including our physical properties &
potentially our behavior too. There is no gene for schizophrenia; however
there may be several genes which contribute to the onset of
Schizophrenia. Symptoms in SZ such has hallucinations may be caused by a
combination of genes that decide how our brains function.
Concordance rates:
The likelihood of any two random individuals having schizophrenia is
1%
Twin studies:
Dizygotic twins are 2 separate ova
so have less genetic relatedness.…read more

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The concordance rates A large number of studies
between twins are not 100%, support there is a biological
only 44.3% If SZ was down to component of SZ. Gottesmans
genes, it should have been findings suggest that as
100%. The biological genetic familiarity increases,
explanation is not complete so does the likelihood of 2
and cannot account for the people having SZ. We have
remaining 55% in Gottemans empirical evidence which is
study.…read more

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BRAIN STRUCTURE
People suffering from SZ may have one of many possible defects in the
structure of the brain, including:
· MRI scans show unusually large
ventricles. Ventricles are fluid filled
cavities.…read more

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Complications of delivery including asphyxia (lack of oxygen) and
emergency caesarean section
Evaluation Of Brain Structure
Swayze reviewed 50 studies of SZ and found that many had
abnormally large amounts of liquid in cavities in the brain.
Suddath also found enlarged cavities when using MRI scans on
SZ twins. This provides evidence that SZs have defects in their
brain. It is likely that these defects cause schizophrenia.
Torrey found that SZ ventricle size was 15% larger than
normal patients
Andreasen et al.…read more

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Biological Therapies: Schizophrenia
Conventional Antipsychotic Drugs ­ used to reduce the effect of
dopamine and therefore the
symptoms of Schizophrenia. They bind
to D2 receptors and block their action.
Antipsychotic drugs for example
Chlorpromazine can eliminate the
hallucinations and delusions
experienced by those with
schizophrenia. Reduced positive
symptoms for about 75% of those who
used them. These drugs led to the dopamine hypothesis.
Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs ­ also act on the dopamine system
but block serotonin receptors in the brain too.…read more

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Biological Therapies: Schizophrenia
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) - Patients are given muscle relaxants and
anesthetic beforehand.
Electrodes are placed on the scalp to cause a
seizure. This is used to treat catatonic forms of
schizophrenia and seemed to work as an
alternative for antipsychotic medicine.
Varies in terms of:
- Where the electrodes are placed
- The frequency of the treatment
- The electrical waveform of the stimulus
ECT is administered in a series of treatments ranging from 6-12 sessions over a
two week period.…read more

Comments

Emily

Great notes, love the presentation

Esther


The layout is really good. Thanks

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