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Kurt Schneider (1959) divided the symptoms of schizophrenia into two
categories: Positive behaviours (additional abnormal behaviours) & Negative
behaviours (lack of normal behaviours)

Hallucinations ­
Auditory Hallucinations ­ hearing
voices saying things when no one
is really there
Visual Hallucinations ­ seeing
things/people that are not…

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There are TWO MANUALS used to
diagnose schizophrenia:

The first is: ICD which is used in Europe &
internationally. It explains that
schizophrenic people are those who show 1
serious symptom or 2 less serious
symptoms for a month or more

The second is: DSM ­ IV…

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Countries using different This can lead to cases of Create 1 manual that is used in
diagnostic manuals. Cooper misdiagnosis, so patients will every country to improve
et al. found that people are be given the wrong drug inter-rater reliability. It will also

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The original dopamine hypothesis states that the brain of
a SZ patient produces more dopamine than the brain of
a `normal' person.

It is now thought that SZ patients have an abnormally
high number of D2 receptors. Dopamine receptors are
known to play a key role in…

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Genes determine our natural make-up, including our physical properties &
potentially our behavior too. There is no gene for schizophrenia; however
there may be several genes which contribute to the onset of
Schizophrenia. Symptoms in SZ such has hallucinations may be caused by a
combination of genes that decide…

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part in relatives getting schizophrenia.

The concordance rates A large number of studies
between twins are not 100%, support there is a biological
only 44.3% If SZ was down to component of SZ. Gottesmans
genes, it should have been findings suggest that as
100%. The biological genetic familiarity increases,

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explains why concordance
rates are not 100%


People suffering from SZ may have one of many possible defects in the
structure of the brain, including:
· MRI scans show unusually large
ventricles. Ventricles are fluid filled
cavities. This means the brains of SZs
are lighter than those of…

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· Complications of delivery including asphyxia (lack of oxygen) and
emergency caesarean section
Evaluation Of Brain Structure

Swayze reviewed 50 studies of SZ and found that many had
abnormally large amounts of liquid in cavities in the brain.
Suddath also found enlarged cavities when using MRI scans on
SZ twins.…

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Biological Therapies: Schizophrenia
Conventional Antipsychotic Drugs ­ used to reduce the effect of
dopamine and therefore the
symptoms of Schizophrenia. They bind
to D2 receptors and block their action.
Antipsychotic drugs for example
Chlorpromazine can eliminate the
hallucinations and delusions
experienced by those with
schizophrenia. Reduced positive
symptoms for about…

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Biological Therapies: Schizophrenia
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) - Patients are given muscle relaxants and
anesthetic beforehand.

Electrodes are placed on the scalp to cause a
seizure. This is used to treat catatonic forms of
schizophrenia and seemed to work as an
alternative for antipsychotic medicine.

Varies in terms of:
- Where…




Great notes, love the presentation



The layout is really good. Thanks

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