Psychology AQA Schizophrenia

  • Created by: JayRK
  • Created on: 05-01-21 14:29
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  • Psychological Explanations of Schizophrenia
    • Family Dysfunction
      • Double Bind Theory
        • Gregory Bateson (1956)
        • Suggests that children whom receive contradictory messages from parents or guardians are more likely to develop schizophrenia
          • Example: A mother tells a child she loves them, yet at the same time turns away in disgust, this sends conflicting messages which the child could not respond based on such contradictions
      • Expressed Emotion
        • Kuipers (1983)
        • A family communication style in which members of a family talk about the patient in a critical or hostile manner or in a way which indicates emotional overinvolvement
          • A patient returning to a family with high EE is four times more likely to relapse
          • Suggesting that people with schizophrenia have a lower tolerance to intense environmental stimuli
      • Family Relationships Evaluation: Suggests that the illness only manifests itself  under appropriate environmental conditions, hence genetic vulnerability alone is not sufficient
      • Individual differences to the amount of EE given or taken in
      • Double Bind Evaluation: Gibney claims that the real value of double bind theory is that it has led to the development of family therapy
    • Cognitive Explanations
      • Delusions
        • During the creation of delusions the patients interpretations of their experiences are controlled by inadequate information processing. A critical characteristic of delusions is the degree at which the individual perceives themselves.
          • This manifests the patients tendency to relate irrelevant things to themselves
          • Examples include:: Flashes of light being a signal from god, a muffled voice being someone criticising them etc.
      • Hallucinations
        • Hallucinating individuals focus excessive attention on auditory stimuli and so have a higher expectancy for the occurrence of a voice than normal individuals
        • Aleman (2001)
          • Suggests that hallucination prone individuals find it hard to distinguish between imagery and sensory based perception
      • Supporting evidence of the cognitive model: Sarah and Wallin (2014)
      • Support from the success of cognitive therapies from the use of CBTp treatments by NICE (2014), consistent evidence found in favour


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