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SCHIZOPHRENIA
Classification
Positive symptoms
Negative symptoms
Issues of diagnosis
Test re-test reliability
Inter-rater reliability
Type 1/Type 2 errors
Comorbidity
First rank symptoms
Biological explanations
Family studies
Twin studies
Adoption studies
Dopamine hypothesis
Biological therapies
Conventional drugs
Atypical drugs
ECT
Psychological explanations
Cognitive approach
Psychodynamic approach
Sociocultural factors
Psychological therapies
CBT
Psychoanalysis
Family intervention…read more

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SCHIZOPHRENIA
I T ?
T IS
WHA It is a form of psychosis, meaning they are detached from
reality
Can be characterised by a disruption of cognition and emotion
Affects language, perception and sense of self
Approx 1% of the population are diagnosed with schizophrenia
Characteristics an be categorised into positive and negative
symptoms:
Delusions -
Bizzare beliefs that seem real
Alogia - poverty of
speech, reflects slow/blocked
Hallucinations -
Bizzare unreal perceptions of the
environment, usually auditory
Experiences of Avolition- Inability to
indicate/persist in…read more

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Positive Schizophrenic symptoms are those that appear to reflect an excess or
distortion of normal functions
Negative schizophrenic symptoms are those that appear to reflect a loss of normal
function
anuals
Diagnostic m
To be diagnosed as
ostic and
DSM = Diagn l
schizophrenic an individ
ual
nual of menta
statistical ma must show at least 2 po
sitive
disorder symptoms with a dura
tion of
one month (DSM)
tional
ICD = Interna
of Diseases
Classification
Validity = Is it schizophrenia or is it another…read more

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VALID SYMPTOMS
Schneider discussed `first rank' symptoms which were designed to
uniquely identify someone with schizophrenia. For example he
claimed that delusions or experiences of control will not be
experiences in other disorders
TYPE 1 ERROR = false positive = diagnosed with
schizophrenia when they don't have it
TYPE 2 ERROR = false negative = not diagnosed with
schizophrenia or misdiagnosed
ROSENHAM STUDY
Normal people presented themselves as hearing voices to a
psychiatric hospital, none of the staff recognised them as
normal.…read more

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Reliability
Reliability = consistency can psychiatrists agree on the same
diagnosis?
Inter-rater reliability = the extent to within which psychiatrists
agree on the same diagnosis
The DSM III was designed specifically to improve reliability of
diagnosis. Before this there was great discrepancy between
different psychiatrists diagnoses.
Carson claimed that the introduction of the DSM III succeeded
in increasing inter rater reliability, thus agreement amongst
psychiatrists about whether an individual had schizophrenia or not.
However there remain questions about inter-
rater reliability.…read more

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BIOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS
Family Studies
Gottesman, family studies established that schizophrenia is
more common among biological relatives of a person with
schizophrenia and that the closer the degree of genetic
relatedness the greater the risk e.g.
2 schizophrenic parents = 46% risk
1 schizophrenic parent = 13% risk
Schizophrenic siblings = 9% risk
GENETICS
ADOPTION
STUDIES TWIN
STUDIES
Tienari et al - 164 adoptees in
Finland with biological mothers Gottesman, calculated the
with schizophrenia concordance rates of...…read more

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GENETICS
Blind
diagnoses =
Studies that use blind psychiatrists are social learning
less likely to diagnose schizophrenia if
they are unaware of the background of theory =
the patient compared to higher family studies - genes may not
concordance rates when psychiatrists be the cause of schizophrenia,
are aware = bias it may be the observation of a
family member and imitation
Selective Concordance
placements = rates =
Not a neutral environment as child There is a strong genetic
would be treated differently due to…read more

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DOPAMINE HYPOTHESIS
Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that is involved in
regulating perception and attention. The
dopamine hypothesis states that there is an Dopa
excess of dopamine activity in people with
mine
schizophrenia. This may be because they have a
high numbers of D2 receptors resulting in over-
activity i.e. neuron firing.
Excess levels of dopamine can explain
hallucinations due to distorted perception.…read more

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BIOLOGICAL THERAPIES
Antipsychotic drugs aim to:
- aid daily functioning and increase feelings of
subjective well being
- 2 types of antipsychotics = conventional & atypical
Conventional - e.g.…read more

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