Schizophrenia revision guide

classification - clinical characteristics of schizophrenia, issues surrounding the classification and diagnosis of schizophrenia (reliability and validity). 

explanations - biological (genetics and biochemicals), psychological (behavioural, cognitive, psychodynamic)

therapy - biological therapies (drugs and ECT), psychological therapies (Psychodynamic and family therapy)

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Classification and diagnosis of schizophrenia:

Schizophrenia means split mind because there is a loss of contact with reality, disturbances of thought
process and disturbances of emotion/behaviour. There are two types of symptoms: positive and negative.
Positive symptoms is an excess distortion of a normal function (exaggeration) and a negative…

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Everyone that displays symptoms gets the diagnosis of schizophrenia and not another disorder. Furthermore
there is little consistency in diagnosis over the 30 years: USA: 20% diagnosed in the 1930's and 80%
diagnosed in the 1950's however in the UK it was 20% for 1930's ­ 1950's.

Solution to solve…

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setting), group 2, 4 were diagnosed with schizophrenia therefore this suggests that schizophrenia is
inherited despite there being an environmental factor.
2. Adoption studies: adoption studies mainly compare adoptees with biological and adoptive parents
as similarities with biological parents would indicate genetic influences. Kety's Danish adoption
study found higher rates…

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Research methods: cause or effect? It is very difficult to establish whether the excessive dopamine
causes schizophrenia or is it an effect of schizophrenia drug treatment. This is a huge obstacle to
overcome. Psychologists have come up with a solution in terms of regularly scanning brains of
schizophrenics continuously. However…

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Socio-cultural factors ­ life events:
Life events are major events such as getting married. High levels of physiological arousal associated with
neurotransmitter changes are thought to be involved (Faloon). Cortisol damages nerve cells in the
hippocampus (memory) resulting in impaired memory which means you are not able to coordinate and…

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Appropriateness: "revolving door syndrome" and side effects: both drugs have side effects. These
drugs only have temporarily sort out symptoms and doesn't solve the symptoms. Relapses are
common and then they are given more drugs so its like a revolving door. Perhaps they also need
psychological therapies as well to…

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Freud claimed that psychoanalysis was inappropriate when treating schizophrenia as many have
communication problems and they cannot understand their disorder. Now, thinking has changed as they
have drugs and these enable the symptoms to reduce and they are capable of talking about the disorder.

Free association allows the client to…

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face. The treatment involves and education about schizophrenia and its nature, offers advice, support and
problems solving. In the beginning they measure the level of EE (expressed emotion) through structured
interviews and continue to measure it on a regular basis to try and prevent a relapse. In sessions the




Really helpful thanks, so much detail. 

Erika Pickard


Very Helpful- Which syllabus is this for?



Possibly AQA A specification. This book is really good with A* model essay answers for Psya4 Schizophrenia too - the guy that wrote it scored 100% for both A2 papers:

:) PurpleJaguar (: - Team GR


Really helpful, thanks! :)



So helpful, thanks x

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