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ALEXANDER II (1855-1881)
· Emancipation of the serfs in 1861.
1864 set up the zemstva and in
1870 power was extended to
towns and cities.
· 1870 modernised judicial scheme
extending power away from just
the tsar.
· Assassinated on way to sign a
decree allowing elective national
government…read more

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· Unite a massive country (5000
miles east to west) when many
national minorities.
· Maintain supreme political power
made difficult by fathers reforms.
· Pressure to reform and be like
western/central Europe whilst
others opposed reform…read more

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· Assassination of AIII
threatened social structure.
At the top was the tsar then
landed aristocracy and the
Russian Orthodox church
· Repression was therefore
supported by these as there
position relied on that of the
tsar. These supporters know
as slavophiles…read more

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· Pobedonostev, replaced liberal
ministers as chief minister.
· Manifesto 1881- sole power lay with
the tsar
· Destroy the people's will - set up
statute of state security to try
government opponents
· Stop spread of liberal ideas. 14
papers banned 1882 ­ 89. censored
books by Okhrana.
· Universities under control of central
government…read more

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· Pobedonostev undone reforms-
created land captains to enforce
local laws. Members of the landed
· 1890 land captains made members
of the zemstva. Landed classed had
the most power.
· Primary schools under church
control and introduced restrictions
· 1890 government had the right to
choose juries…read more

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