Russia before 1881

  • Created by: Ellie
  • Created on: 25-03-14 21:05

Rulers of Russia

1801 - 1825 Tsar Alexander I Absolute Monarchy

1825 - 1855 Tsar Nicholas I Absolute Monarchy

1855 - 1881 Tsar Alexander II Absolute Monarchy

1881 - 1894 Tsar Alexander III Absolute Monarchy

1894 - 1917 Tsar Nicholas II Absolute Monarchy

1917 feb - july Prince Lvov Provisional Government

1917 july - oct Alexander Kerensky Provisional Government

1917 - 1924 Lenin Communist Government

1924 - 1929 Stalin Communist Government

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1855 Alexander II becomes Tsar

1861 Emancipation of the serfs

1881 Alexander II assassinated, his successor, Alexander III begins a period of repression

1892 Witte becomes Finance Minister. The 'Great Spurt' of industrial growth begins

1894 Nicholas II becomes Tsar

1898 Social Democrat Party founded

1901 Social Revolutionary Party founded

1904 Outbreak of Russo-Japanese War

1905 Year of Revolution

1906 Stolypin becomes Prime Minister

1911 Stolypin assassinated

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Timeline continued

1914 Outbreak of the First World War

1917 Feb - revolution - Tsar abdicates and the prov gov is established

April - Lenin returns to Russia; April Theses

July - July Days

August - Kornilov Affair

October - Bolshevik seizure of power; Lenin establishes new government

1918 Outbreak of the Civil War - 'war communism' introduced

1921 Civil War ends - Kronstadt Mutiny - 'New Economic Policy' replaces War Communism

1922 Creation of the USSR. Lenin becomes seriously ill

1924 Lenin dies

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Ruling Class: 

Tsar: absolute political power and owned vast estates across Russia - God appointed Tsar - divine right to rule - banned political parties

the Court: contained leading landowners and members of gov, supported by leading members of the Russian Orthadox Church - posessed considerable political and social power - elite = 2 groups (reactionaries (most dominant) and reformers (inc. Witte)

Upper Class:  military, nobles and higher clergy - nobles resented loss of serfs and accused gov of favouring industry - demanded reform of autocracy - used Zemstva (rural councils) to push forward ideas - Zemstva powers limited to elementary education and building roads etc

Middle Class: merchants, factory owners, financiers - little political influence, money but no heritage - wanted reform and effective gov

Working Class: miners, workers, small shopkeepers = rapidly growing class - spread of education = literate workers influenced with revolutionary ideas, many former peasants

Peasants: 82% of population in 1897 census - 1861- emancipation of Serfs - some got 25% less land when freed = disappointment - burdened by redemption payments - peasant literacy increasing -would need permission from elders o leave Mir (impeding developing industry)

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multiracial empire

many nationalities/religions:

  • Tsar had no sympathy for any seperate nationalities
  • followed policy of russification - turn non russians into 'true christians, loyal subjects and good Russians' 
  • non Russian languages banned in schools, official docs and street signs
  • jews blamed for death of Alex II - harshly treated
  • 70% Russian Orthadox, 11% Muslim, 9% RC, 10% other
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