Theme 1 -> Changes from above
CHANGES FROM ABOVE
means changes by the tsar or the government
strong tradition of political, economic and social change from above
Tsar Alexander II introduced many reforms during his reign from 1855- 1881
Lenin also introduced many reforms from 1917- 1924
The change from above is strong due to the fact that Russia has only briefly ever had an liberal, demoncratic government. At all other times power has been in the hands of Tsars or Communist dictators
Power was firmly in the hands of these leaders.
Theme 2 -> War
1854- 1856: russian fought Britain, Turkey and France in the Crimean war with much of the war taking place on the Russian soil.
The defeat in the Crimea was a major reason for Alexander II reforms
1904- 1905 Russia fought Japan regarding territory in the Far East.
Russias defeat was an major reason for the fueling of the revolution at home in 1905.
First World War Placed huge political and economic strain on Russian empire as it struggled to fight in an European war agains Germany, Austro- Hungry and Turkey,
Defeats undermined autocracy of the Tsar
Combined with economic meltdown, they were the majot reasons for the Tsar Nicolas II abdication n 1917.
Theme 3 -> Revolution
1905 - this revolution resulted in the introduction of the OCTOBER MANIFESTO which allowed for the creation of the Duma, Russias first nationally elected parliament.
Feb 1917- resulted in abdication of the Tsar Nicolas II which ended 300 years of Romonov dynasty
Led to brief period ( Feb - Oct) of liberal demoncratic rule under the Provisional Government
October 1917- revolution brought the worlds first communist state and the transformation of political, social and economic structure in Russia.