Revision for main themes of Russia 


Theme 1 -> Changes from above


means changes by the tsar or the government

strong tradition of political, economic and social change from above 

Tsar Alexander II introduced many reforms during his reign from 1855- 1881

Lenin also introduced many reforms from 1917- 1924 

The change from above is strong due to the fact that Russia has only briefly ever had an liberal, demoncratic government. At all other times power has been in the hands of Tsars or Communist dictators 

Power was firmly in the hands of these leaders. 

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Theme 2 -> War


1854- 1856:  russian fought Britain, Turkey and France in the Crimean war with much of the war taking place on the Russian soil. 

The defeat in the Crimea was a major reason for Alexander II reforms 

1904- 1905  Russia fought Japan regarding territory in the Far East. 

Russias defeat was an major reason for the fueling of the revolution at home in 1905. 

First World War  Placed huge political and economic strain on Russian empire as it struggled to fight in an European war agains Germany, Austro- Hungry and Turkey,

Defeats undermined autocracy of the Tsar

Combined with economic meltdown, they were the majot reasons for the Tsar Nicolas II abdication n 1917. 

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Theme 3 -> Revolution


1905 - this revolution resulted in the introduction of the OCTOBER MANIFESTO which allowed for the creation of the Duma, Russias first nationally elected parliament. 

Feb 1917-  resulted in abdication of the Tsar Nicolas II which ended 300 years of Romonov dynasty 

Led to brief period ( Feb - Oct) of liberal demoncratic rule under the Provisional Government 

October 1917- revolution brought the worlds first communist state and the transformation of political, social and economic structure in Russia. 

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