Risk Factors in Addiction - Table

This is a table of the different risk factors mentioned in the 'Complete Companion' textbook. Basically put into note form, highlighted and with relevant AO1 and AO2 detail. In my actual exam there was a question about risk factors and so I would have talked about some of these. I think these were stress, social learning theory and social identity theory.

It's important that you can identify the risk factors in a scenario, talk about them and then evaluate them with AO2 points, as the questions in the exam are often structured this way.

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Risk Factors
Factor Evidence and Explanation
Everyday Use pathological behaviour to cope with daily hassles.
NIDA ­ stressors (relationships, workplace etc.) contribute to initiation,
Stress maintenance and relapse of addiction.
Smoking increases stress, by Hajek et al. found it may reduce the stress of
the craving.
Traumatic Exposure to severe stress makes us more vulnerable, like parental loss or
child abuse. PTSD does too.
Stress Driessen et al. ­ 30% drug addicts and 15% alcoholics have PTSD.
Cloniger found two types of alcoholics:
Type 1 ­ drink to reduce tension (vulnerable to stress)
Type 2 ­ to relieve boredom.
Peer Smokers tend to befriend smokers.
McAlister et al. ­ transitions to increased smoking levels are linked to peer
Pressure encouragement and expected popularity.
Social Bandura ­ addiction is learned through observation and modelling of others.
Adolescents imitate the behaviour of those they have the most contact
Learning with.
Duncan et al. ­ exposure to peer models means increased likelihood of
adolescent smoking.
Social Abrams and Hogg ­ adopting norms and behaviours that are central to a
group's identity. In a `smoker' peer group, members are more likely to have
Identity similar smoking habits.
Mitchell ­ stereotypes of specific social crowds motivate adolescent
smoking. However, little is known about the extent of this influence over
group members ­ don't know whether demands can be resisted if conflict
with health.
Age Young adolescence ­ social crowd (peers) have more impact on smoking
and drug use.
Brown et al. - in later adolescence, close friends and romantic partners
become more influential on attitudes and behaviours.
Neuroticism Eysenck ­ a biological theory based on three dimensions:
Extraversion ­ chronically under-aroused and bored; seek external
and stimulation to increase cortical arousal.
Psychoticism Neuroticism ­ experience negative effects (depression, anxiety etc.)
Psychoticism ­ hostility and impulsivity (reaction with little forethought).

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Weintraub et al. ­ studied Parkinson's sufferers.
Treatment ­ drugs to increase dopamine. Side effect ­ increase in
impulse-control disorders (like gambling).
Shows higher dopamine ­ impulsivity and addiction.
Tri-Dimensio Cloniger ­ three traits that predispose individuals towards substance
nal Theory of Novelty seeking ­ engaging in new experiences.
Addictive Harm avoidance ­ worrying, being pessimistic etc.
Behaviour Reward dependence ­ extent to which they learn quickly from rewarding
experiences and repeat the behaviour.
Research ­ correlational.…read more


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