Pages in this set

Page 1

Preview of page 1
ADDICTION

Addiction is a continuous or intermittent craving for a substance (nicotine) or
behaviour (gambling) to avoid a dysphoric state. Individuals have a strong
desire to take the substance and show progressive neglect of other
satisfaction. As a result of long term use, they develop tolerance and
experience withdrawal symptoms…

Page 2

Preview of page 2
BIOLOGICAL MODEL OF ADDICTION

Gambling Smoking
Genetics Genes
Brain chemistry Brain chemistry
Sensation seeking
Boredom avoidance

GAMBLING

Initiation
Genetics ­ Black et al (2006) found that first
degree relatives of problem gamblers are more
likely to suffer from pathological gambling more
than distant relatives.
Indicates genetic transmission of
predisposition to…

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Individual Differences Inheritance of gambling may be
Explains why some people develop indirect
gambling addiction whereas others Alessi and Petry (2003) suggest that
don't despite similar life inherited impulsivity is a significant
pressures/experience. predictor of developing risky behaviours
rather than an individual gene itself. This
may predict gambling or other…

Page 4

Preview of page 4
There may be a biological predisposition that means some people are more
vulnerable to become addicted to smoking rather than others.

Initiation
Genetics
From family and twin studies, inheritability of
smoking ranges from 39% to 80%.
Vink et al (2005) tested 1572 pairs of Dutch
twins. He found that genes…

Page 5

Preview of page 5
EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICAL MODEL
SMOKING

Genes linked to smoking
Thorgiessen et al (2008) found a specific gene
on chromosome 15 linked to number of
cigarettes smoked on likelihood of
dependence.
Those who smoked more than 10 cigarettes a
day were more likely to have the variant on
chromosome 15.
Indicates…

Page 6

Preview of page 6
COGNITIVE MODEL OF ADDICTION

Gambling Smoking
Self medication model Expectancy theory
Irrational beliefs Automatic processing
Recall Bias Expectancies of costs and rewards


GAMBLING

Initiation
Self Medication Model ­ Gelkopf et al (2002)
Individuals intentionally use the addictive behaviour to cope with
psychological problems such as boredom, poor mood and social…

Page 7

Preview of page 7
Maintenance
Irrational beliefs ­ Oei & Gordon (2008)
Gamblers frequently have irrational beliefs about their ability to control the
outcomes of gambling.
Gamblers are more likely to be superstitious

These irrational beliefs are cognitive
distortions which include `gambler's
fallacy'.

Gambler's fallacy is the idea that random
events such as a…

Page 8

Preview of page 8
Relapse
Recall Bias ­ Blanco et al (2000)
Recall bias is the distorted thoughts having an impact on the memory of the
individual. This means that as they believed they won more than they lost,
they have a distorted memory and more likely to fall back into gambling
because of…

Page 9

Preview of page 9
SMOKING


Treatment Implications Issues with research validity
Tate et al (1994) found that the There is a difference between being
expectancies of the addicts can be an addict and performing an action
manipulated to improve cessation to excess.
rates. Addiction is characterised by a
loss of control and it is…

Page 10

Preview of page 10
Gambling Smoking
Operant conditioning Social learning theory
Classical conditioning Operant conditioning
Classical conditioning


GAMBLING

Initiation
Operant conditioning ­ Operant Conditioning is a type of
learning in which a behaviour is strengthened when it's
followed by reinforcement, and weakened when followed by
punishment.

We are more likely to repeat behaviours that…

Comments

MrsMacLean

Report

A very useful summary of addiction which covers all the major topics and is colourful too!

safiya

Report

This is really good, thanks!

Shinelle Nhyira

Report

Very good!

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all resources »