ADDICTION: RISK FACTORS IN DEVELOPMENT OF ADDICTION (GENETIC, PERSONALITY, STRESS, FAMILY, PEERS)

WHAT IS MEANT BY RISK FACTOR?

  • Internal or external 
  • Increases likelihood of starting drugs or engaging in addictive behaviour
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GENETIC VULNERABILITY AS A RISK FACTOR IN DEVELOPI

  • Inherit predisposition/ vulnerability
  • Some dependant and some aren't
  • Interaction between genes and environment 
  • Not addicted unless exposed 

D2 RECEPTOR 

  • Communicated with neurotransmitter dopamine
  • Low levels of D2 associatedd with addiction 
  • Levels determined by genetics

METABOLISM

  • Fast metabolism results in becoming addicted as you consume more to feel same effects
  • Rate inherited through genes 

RESEARCH: PIANEZZA

  • non smokers = low level of eznsyme which breaks down nicotine
  • Enzyme is genetically determined
  • Fully functioning enzyme = greater risk of nicotine addiction
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STRESS AS A RISK FACTOR IN DEVELOPING AN ADDICTION

  • Physical and psychological arousal
  • Believe they dont have ability to cope 
  • Periods of chronic, long lasting stress and traumatic life events linked to risk of developing addiction
  • Not the level of stress but how they percieve their ability to cope with the stress makes them more vulnerable
  • EG: high stress and social support = ability to cope 

RESEARCH: EPSTEIN

  • NAtional Womens Study
  • Correlation between childhood **** and diagnosed PTSD with adult alcoholism

ANDERSEN AND TEICHER

  • Early experiencfe of stress has damaging effects on brain during sensitive period of development 
  • Creates vulnerability to addiction in adolescence/ young adulthood
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PERSONALITY AS A RISK FACTOR IN DEVELOPING AN ADDI

  • Consistent patterns of thinking, feelings and behaviours  over time
  • Not one personality linked to addicition 
  • Traits linked to addicition (neurotic and psychopathic)
  • NEUROTICISM = high levels of anxiety, irritability, anger, guilt, depressed, low self efficacy
  • PSYCHOTICISM = Impulsive, sensation seeking, chaotic, lack planning
  • Pathologcal personalities = more likley to become addicts as theyre offered relief from drug/ bhvr

RESEARCH: WAN SEN YAN ET AL

  • Relationship between personality characteristics and addiction
  • Looked at Eysenck theory 
  • Found high lvl of neuroticism linked to internet addiction
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FAMILY INFLUENCES AS A RISK FACTOR IN DEVELOPING A

  • Family effect thoughts, feelings and behaviour in development
  • Percieved parental approval  - parents have positive attitude towards bhvr/ substance \
  • Have little intervention in behaviour = more likely to develop addicition
  • Exposure to drug/ bhvr = more likely to start using when its an everyday feature in family

RESEARCH : LIVINGSTON ET AL 

  • Final year of highschool who have parent with positive attitudes with permission to drink = significantly more likely to drink excessive in college 
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PEERS AS A RISK FACTOR IN DEVELOPING AN ADDICTION

  • Peers = share interests, age, similar backgrounds and social status
  • Influence development as spend more time with peers than family 
  • ATTITIUDES AND NORMS - Group of peers who drink alcohol 
  • OPPORTUNITIES - More experienced in drink = more opportunities provided 
  • INDIVIDUALS PERCEPTION - Overestimate how much drink = drink more to keep up
  • Group norm of rule breaking is influential EG cannabis leads to opportunity of rule breaking and try new drugs

RESEARCH : O' CONNELL

  • Older children = at risk of developing alcohol addiciton due to influence of peers 
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RISK FACTORS IN DEVELOPING ADDICTION - AO3

P- Retrospective data

E- Recall info of addiciton from past = make up leading to inaccuracy 

E- Findings dont support risk factos , reduce int validity

L- Weaken support when look at risk factors in develop addicition

P- Not absolute findings

E- Individual differences = Not all with the factors develop addiction 

E- Other factors involved = unconscious motives

L- Need to learn more about risk factors

P- Culture bias

E- Western = America

E- Difficult to generalise to Non west = Kenya = different norms/ values

L- These impact their risk factors so need to understand their norms/ values

P- Practical applications

E- Doctors can use to create treatments/ prevention

E- Peer Pressure Resistance Training = avoid smoking 

L - Important part of applied psych and prevent addiction

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