Revision Notes on Restless Earth and Ice on the Land

These are some revision notes that i made for the two topics. Hope it Helps and they should cover all aspects of the topics.

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  • Created by: Iswariya
  • Created on: 02-06-13 17:32
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Iswariya Christine Sri Shanmugam
1) The last ice age that happened was 2 million years ago and was called the Ice Age.
2) The last ice Age extended as far south as Britain and covered 2/3 of the British Isles. This is
shown on the map ( the areas covered by the misty white
shows the ice)
3) The extent of the ice coverage at present day is that it can
be found in places like Antarctica and Greenland.
4) Accumulation-this is when the temperatures are high and
the glacier starts to melt. This normally takes place lower
down the mountain.
Ablation- this is the build up of ice that normally takes place
higher up the mountain.
If the accumulation increases beyond the ablation then the
glacier will advance. If the ablation increases above the
accumulation then the glacier will retreat.
5) Case Study-South Cascade Glacier
From the budget data that has been collected this glacier
has mostly been retreating since 1985 and only had a little amount of accumulation. This could be
caused by higher temperatures and a decrease in the amount of snowfall. If drawn on a line
graph the data shows a negative correlation most of the time and so further supports that the
glacier is retreating.
As the seasons change this can affect the outcome of the glacier's size. During the summer the
glacier will retreat as it is higher in temperatures. Whereas, in the winter the glacier will advance
as there is more accumulation with more snowfall.
6) Freeze-thaw weathering occurs when the temperatures are often around freezing point. Water
goes into the cracks in rocks. As it freezes the water expands, putting pressure onto the rock. As
it melts the pressure is released. As this keeps on happening pieces of the rock fall off.
7) Erosion: Abrasion- rocks and rock particles are embedded into the bottom of the glacier. As it
starts to move, these sharp rock particles give a sandpaper effect on the ground below. The
bigger rock particles make deep grouves called striations.
Erosion: Plucking- this is the tearing away of blocks of rock from the bedrock as the glacier
moves. The blocks of rock are pulled away or ripped out as the glacier flows downhill.
8) Snowfall collects in a hollow. This after some time becomes a glacier. The weathering and erosion
causes the hollow to get deeper. Even though the ice is trapped in a hollow and cannot move,
the gravity still encourages it to move. This circular motion is called a Rotational Slip and can cause
the ice to pull away from the back wall creating a crevasse and bergschrund.
9) Deposition is the material and debris
that is left from the moving away
glacier. This can be left in the form
called Boulder Clay.
10) Corrie: After the Rotational Slip is
formed and the crevasse and
bergschrund the back wall deepens
as the erosion and weathering
occurs. As the amount of rock and

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Iswariya Christine Sri Shanmugam
particles beneath act as sandpaper against the bottom of the glacier as it moves, the bottom
deepens. This land form that is created is called a corrie. This is shown in the diagram above.
Arêtes: Sometimes several corries may develop
around a mountain separated only by narrow ridges
called arêtes.
Pyramidal Peak: if three or more corries form back to
back, the result is a pyramidal peak.…read more

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Iswariya Christine Sri Shanmugam
employment; without tourism young people may leave the Alpine community to find work; older
people will be left behind in the villages where the services will decline; the Alps has its own
ecosystem of plants and animals-if the snowline gets higher then there is less space for these
plants to grow in; Alpine species are threatened with extinction due to the higher temperatures;
as the glacier continues to retreat there will be less melt water in lakes and fish could die…read more

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Iswariya Christine Sri Shanmugam
1) The distribution of tectonic plate boundaries are in long,
thin belts epically around the edges of the Pacific Ocean.…read more

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Iswariya Christine Sri Shanmugam
earthquakes and volcanoes to be formed. This is shown on the map at the side.
2) A continental plate is older than the oceanic plate, light but thick in size and permanent as it will
never sink. Whereas, an oceanic plate is younger and thinner but, dense and heavy and so will
sink. It is always being destroyed and remade.
3) a) Destructive Plate Margin: these are the causes of violent volcanoes and earthquakes as well
as deep ocean trenches.…read more

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Iswariya Christine Sri Shanmugam
HEP- the steep slopes and the narrow valleys can be easily dammed for HEP. The melting snow
provides it with water but, this is seasonal.
Mining- the Andes has a range of important minerals and the Andean countries rank top ten for
tin, nickel, silver and gold. The Yanacocha gold mine is the largest gold mine in the world. The
town of Cajamarca has grown from 30,000 inhabitants (when the mine began) to 240,000 in
2005.…read more

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Iswariya Christine Sri Shanmugam
Plymouth was evacuated. The country was forced to rely on the aid of
Positive Impacts Negative Impacts
The dramatic scenery created by the eruption Many lives can be lost during an eruption.
attracts tourists, bringing more income into
the area.
The ash and lava that comes out during the If the ash and mud from a volcanic eruption mix
eruption breaks down and gives nutrients to with rain water or melting snow, fast moving
the soil. mudflows are created.…read more

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Iswariya Christine Sri Shanmugam
8) Super volcanoes are large depressions called Calderas. Often they have a rim of high land around
the edges. However, they don't have a characteristic cone shape of the normal volcanoes. An
eruption would likely destroy 10000km² of land and kill 87000 people, 15 cm of ash would cover
buildings within 1000km and 1/3 people affected would die. It would affect the whole world and
the vegetations.…read more

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Iswariya Christine Sri Shanmugam
Immediate Responses Long-term Responses
Search for people in the rubble Building rebuilt
Hospitals perform operations in corridors Buildings built further apart to prevent the
domino effect
Motorola allowed free calls on the telephone Rubber blocks built under bridges to absorb
13) Case Study - the Sichuan earthquake was caused by the two plates moving towards each other .
The movement was at a destructive margin and so caused the earthquake at a larger scale.…read more

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Iswariya Christine Sri Shanmugam
Cause- if one tectonic plate is dragged beneath another, stress on the boundary causes the
edges of the plate to flex and deform. The flexing of the plate displaces the entire column of
water virtually. Quickly the water column splits into two with one wave travelling out to sea and
the other towards the coast. The tsunami comes ashore and can surge far inland. Often
secondary waves are far more powerful than the individual one.
Effects- approx.…read more


Mr A Gibson

High quality notes on two subjects here but equally as useful as each other. These provide a high level of detail and you will benefit from having them in your folder and using them.

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