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The Restless Earth


The Structure of the earth:
At the centre of the earth, there is a ball of solid iron
and nickel called the core. Around the core is the
mantle, which is semimolten rock that moves very
slowly. The outer layer of the Earth is the crust which…

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1) Destructive Margins

A destructive margin is when
oceanic crust moves towards
continental crust, for example
the Nazca plate moving towards
the South American plate. As the
oceanic crust is heavier, it is
forced downwards. As it is
forced downwards, pressure
increases which can trigger extremely violent earthquakes. At the…

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3) Constructive Margins

A constructive margin is where
two plates move apart, for
example the North American
plate moving away from the
Eurasian plate. As a `gap'
appears between the two plates,
then the lava can easily escape
either in the form of a relatively
gentle eruption or as a…

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Fold Mountains
Young fold mountains are formed along the
plate margins where great earth movements
take place.

There were long periods of quiet between Earth
movements during which sedimentary rocks
thousands of meters thick formed in huge
depressions called geosynclines. Rivers
carried sediments and deposited them into the
depressions. Over…

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Austria and Slovenia. The highest peak is Mont Blanc near the FrancoItalian
border at 4810 meters, but there are many other peaks above 3800 meters.



Human activity...
Farming & Forestry: Most farms are located on the sunnier and warmer
southfacing slopes. The traditional pattern of farming is dairy farming using…

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vegetation and the surface below and thereby increasing the number of bare
surfaces and the risk of soil erosion on steep slopes.

Hydroelectric power (HEP) and Industry: The steep slopes, high
precipitation and summer melting of the glaciers produce fastflowing rivers that
are ideal for generating HEP. The narrow valleys…

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Volcanoes are divided into two main types, depending upon the material thrown
out in an eruption and the form (height and shape) of the volcanic cone produced:

Type Shield Composite Cone
Plate margin Constructive Destructive
Formation As the plates move apart, When the plates collide, the
magma rises to fill…

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lava is shattered into pieces
so bombs, ash and dust are
showered over a wide area
Examples Hekla & Surtsey, Iceland Etna & Vesuvius, Italy
Mauna Loa & Kilauea, Krakatoa, Indonesia
Hawaii Mount St. Helens, USA
Nyriagongo, the Congo
(Africa)




Why people live near volcanoes...

It has been estimated that…

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Other reasons:

They may believe that they are safe to be near a volcano that has been dormant
for a long time
It is much cheaper to live in these areas and people may not be able to afford to
live anywhere else

They trust the scientific information and feel…

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then steam filled with ash exploded onto the pristine white glacial summit of the
mountain. Residents had been told to leave and visitors were not allowed
inside an 8km exclusion zone around the crater.

The expected, yet unpredictable, eruption happened at 8:32am on 18th May.
An earthquake measuring 5.1 on…

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