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Making food and drink

Energy source + microbe products

Making yoghurt:

Energy = lactose
Microbe= lactobacillus and streptococcus
Respiration = anaerobic (w/o oxygen)
Product = lactic acid

1) Milk is pasteurised at 95oC
2) The milk is homogenised (fat droplets are broken down)
3) The milk is cooled at…

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VII. The yeast, Saccharomyces produces the alcohol and flavouring. The pH lowers
as Lactobacillus produces lactic acid.
VIII. A dark brown liquid soya sauce is filtered off and pasteurised.
IX. Place in sterile bottle and you have yourself some soya sauce.

Making mycoprotein

Energy source = any starch or sugar…

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Genetically modifying plants

Agrobacterium tumefaciens as a vector to transfer genes for herbicide reistance to the
genome of a plant cell
Bacillus thurengensis gene inserted to breed insect resistant plant

Figure 1 the process of genetically modifying plants

Drug development


Made form willow bark
Used as a pain killer…

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Figure 2 the industrial production of insulin

Behaviour of humans and other animals
Instinctive or learned behaviour

Instinctive behaviour is controlled by the genes
Learned behaviour: using conditioning
Pavlov's dog
skinner's box
Using habituation = not reacting to insignificant thing
Imprinting ­ is when you learn something from an early…

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Classical conditioning - A learning process that occurs when two stimuli are repeatedly
paired: a response that is at first elicited by the second stimulus is eventually elicited
by the first stimulus alone

Social behaviour and communication

Signals = the bee dance for food
Facial expression = mammals

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Very few animals, mate with the same partner for life. Albatrosses can live to be 80- 85
years old and the mate for life
1) Albatrosses
2) Great crested grebes ­ elaborate courtship display


Some animals live in groups with a dominant male that mates with all…

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