revision guide biology

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  • Created on: 29-05-12 09:36
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Making food and drink
Energy source + microbe products
Making yoghurt:
Energy = lactose
Microbe= lactobacillus and streptococcus
Respiration = anaerobic (w/o oxygen)
Product = lactic acid
1) Milk is pasteurised at 95oC
2) The milk is homogenised (fat droplets are broken down)
3) The milk is cooled at 47oC
4) freeze dried culture of lactobacillus bulgaricus and streptococcus thermophiles in 1:1 ratio
gives the best flavour
5) plain live yoghurt
Making alcohol
Energy = glucose
Microbe = saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast)
Respiration = anaerobic
Product = alcohol and carbon dioxide
Glucose C6H12O6 ethanol 2C5H5OH + carbon dioxide 2CO2
The solution may be pasteurised to kill any microbes before it is bottled.
Making soya sauce
Energy source = soy beans
Microbe =
Aspergillus oryzae (?)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (?)
Lacto bacillus
Bacillus spp (?)
Respiration = anaerobic
Product = soy sauce
I. Soya beans are soaked in water, boiled and filtered while wheat is roasted.
II. Then start a culture of moulds and bacteria aspergillus.
III. Enzymes in the mould breakdown.
IV. Amino acids and sugar content increases.
V. Brine solution is added and mashed into large vats.
VI. This is then further fermented at 2533 degrees Celsius for between a few months
and a year using Bacillus, Lactobacillus and Pediococcus.

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VII. The yeast, Saccharomyces produces the alcohol and flavouring. The pH lowers
as Lactobacillus produces lactic acid.
VIII. A dark brown liquid soya sauce is filtered off and pasteurised.
IX. Place in sterile bottle and you have yourself some soya sauce.…read more

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Genetically modifying plants
Agrobacterium tumefaciens as a vector to transfer genes for herbicide reistance to the
genome of a plant cell
Bacillus thurengensis gene inserted to breed insect resistant plant
Figure 1 the process of genetically modifying plants
Drug development
Made form willow bark
Used as a pain killer
Made from the bark of the pacific yew tree
Used as an ant- carcinogenic drug
Made from extracts of cinchona bark
Used as anti-malarial drug
comes from the Chinese wormwood
used as…read more

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Figure 2 the industrial production of insulin
Behaviour of humans and other animals
Instinctive or learned behaviour
Instinctive behaviour is controlled by the genes
Learned behaviour: using conditioning
Pavlov's dog
skinner's box
Using habituation = not reacting to insignificant thing
Imprinting ­ is when you learn something from an early experience in life
konrad lorenz's geese
Operant conditioning - is when an operant response is brought under stimulus
control by virtue of presenting reinforcement contingent upon the occurrence of
the operant response.…read more

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Classical conditioning - A learning process that occurs when two stimuli are repeatedly
paired: a response that is at first elicited by the second stimulus is eventually elicited
by the first stimulus alone
Social behaviour and communication
Signals = the bee dance for food
Facial expression = mammals
Body language
Chemicals = pheromone secretion by animals
Feeding behaviour
Many animals (bird and mammals) look after their young for some time after they are born. Mammals
feed their young on breast milk.…read more

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Very few animals, mate with the same partner for life. Albatrosses can live to be 80- 85
years old and the mate for life
1) Albatrosses
2) Great crested grebes ­ elaborate courtship display
Some animals live in groups with a dominant male that mates with all the females
1) Lions
Seasonal monogamy:
Other animals may have different mates each year or even in the same breeding season.…read more

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