The use and abuse of drugs
A drug is something that affects our body chemistry - it can have a positive or a negative affect.
Developing New Medicines
A good medicine is...
Effective: it must prevent or cure a disease, or at least make you feel better.
Safe: not toxic or have unacceptable side-effects.
Stable: can be used under normal conditions and can be stored for some time.
There is up to £350 million spent on developing/testing drugs. The placebo effect is when a substance is given that has no effect on the patient. Refer to page 27 of revision guide.
- Was developed in 1950's - sleeping pill.
- Found to stop morning sickness during pregnancy.
- One flaw was that it wasn't tested on pregnant animals or women - therefore didn't know if it was actually beneifical or successful on use of women.
How affective are new medicines?
LOOK IN BOOK FOR WORK ON STATINS.
Developing new medicines
- When new drug is discovered - two main things it should/shouldn't do.
- It should fulfil it's criteria or needs.
- It shouldn't have harmful side effects.
- Other things to consider are
- Is it stable so that it can be easily stored?
- It is easily passed from the body once its done it's job?
- Flow chart with sequence of events to be carried out when testing new drug.
- Scientists have an idea for a new drug for a specific drug.
- They use computers to design and screen the new drug.
- The new drug is synthesised (made) in the lab.
- The drug is tested in vitro. This means - a process/reactions that take place outside a living organism.
- If it passes these tests it is then tested on live animals - see if it will work on whole living organisms. This provides information about the dosage needed and any possible side effects.
- It can then be tested on healthy people to make its safe to use.
- A large number of people with illness drug is designed for will be tested on.
- A large number of people will then be tested.
- If it passes all these tests it will then be licensed and pharmacies/doctors will be able to prescribe it.
- Trials will still continue to monitor the drug even after its been licensed.
- Drugs change the CHEMICAL processes in your body - can become addicted.
- Solvent, alcohol, tobacco and other drugs may HARM your body.
- Smoking cannabis may cause MENTAL problems and solvents can damage the LIVER, LUNGS AND BRAIN.
- Hard drugs (cocaine & herion) are very ADDICTIVE and can cause serious health problems.
- Examples of withdrawal symptoms: shaking, acting out of characters, depression, cravings, violent behaviour.
- Example of…