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MITOCHONDRIA
· Mitochondria have an inner and outer membrane.
· The inner membrane is folded to form the CRISTAE giving it a
large surface area.
· The MATRIX is a gel-like substance inside the inner
membrane/cristae.
· It contains the enzymes involved in the link reaction and
Krebs cycle, coenzyme NAD(used throughout respiration) and
oxaloacetate (used in Krebs cycle) aswell as mitochondrial
DNA.
· The outer membrane allows PYRUVATE (product of
glycolysis) into the mitochondrion.
· The inner membrane is impermeable to small ions, including
hydrogen ions.
· ELECTRON CARRIERS and STALKED PARTICLES (ATP
SYNTHASE ENZYMES) are embedded in the inner membrane.…read more

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ELECTRON CARRIERS
· Situated in the inner mitochondrial membrane.
· They are OXIREDUCTASE ENZYMES that have
COFACTORS associated with them.
· The COFACTORS are haem groups with an IRON atom.
· Together they from the ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN.
· The COFACTORS can `accept' or `donate' electrons as
iron can easily be oxidised to Fe3+ or reduced to Fe2+.
· Most of the electron carriers also have COENZYMES that
pump protons (hydrogen ions) into the
INTERMEMBRANE SPACE.
· Because the inner membrane is impermeable to
hydrogen ions, they build up in the intermembrane
space forming a PROTON OR ELECTROCHEMICAL
GRADIENT.…read more

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STALKED PARTICLES/ATP
SYNTHASE
· They stick out from the inner mitochondrial
membrane into the matrix.
· They allow protons to flow through them.
· The protons flow down a concentration gradient
into the matrix. This flow is called CHEMIOSMOSIS
(the flow of ions across a membrane).
· The force of the flow (THE PROTON MOTIVE
FORCE) causes part of the enzyme to rotate, driving
the synthesis of ADP and Pi to make ATP.…read more

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RESPIRATION
· Respiration takes place in four stages:
· GLYCOLYSIS
· LINK REACTION
· KREBS CYCLE
· OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION…read more

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Phosphorylation GLYCOLYSIS
· Glucose is PHOSPHORYLATED by adding two inorganic phosphates
from two ATP molecules.
· This creates one molecule of HEXOSE BISPHOSPHATE and two
molecules of ADP.
· HEXOSE BISPHOSPHATE is split into two molecules of TRIOSE
PHOSPHATE.
· Oxidation
· TRIOSE PHOSPHATE is OXIDISED (loses hydrogen) forming two
PYRUVATE molecules.
· NAD collects the hydrogen atoms forming reducedNAD.
· 4 ATP molecules are synthesised from 4 ADP and 4 Pi (inorganic
phosphate) using energy released in the oxidation reaction above.
· This gives a NET GAIN of 2 ATP molecules.
· Pyruvate goes into the link reaction.
· It takes place in the cytoplasm of cells.
· It doesn't require oxygen.…read more

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