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F215 Module 3: Ecosystems and Sustainability
5.3.1 Ecosystems

(a) define the term ecosystem
Ecosystem ­ all living organisms and nonliving components in a specific habitat, and the interrelationships
between them.

Habitat the place where an organism lives.
Population all of the organisms of one species , who live in the…

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F215 Module 3: Ecosystems and Sustainability
There are always less consumers as the pyramid gets higher due to energy loss at each trophic level.
(g) outline how energy transfers between trophic levels can be measured
Pyramids of Biomass Pyramids of Energy Productivity
Each bar within the pyramid is Different organisms…

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F215 Module 3: Ecosystems and Sustainability
Using herbicides to protect against weeds, which would compete about, by supplying food for them
for light, water and nutrients. and keeping the temperature
(i) describe one example of primary succession resulting in a climax community
Succession a change in a habitat causing…

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F215 Module 3: Ecosystems and Sustainability
Count the number of individuals of each species.
Estimate the percentage cover of each species this is the proportion of the area within the quadrat which it
Use an abundance scale , such as the ACFOR scale, by estimating which one of these…

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F215 Module 3: Ecosystems and Sustainability
Nitrification happens when chemoautotrophic bacteria in the soil absorb ammonium ions .
Ammonium ions (NH4 ) are released by bacteria involved in putrefaction of proteins found in dead or waste
organic matter.
Chemoautotrophic bacteria obtains energy by oxidising ammonium ions (NH 4…


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