Respiration (OCR)

OCR, Biology

Unit F214, Module 4

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Sameer
  • Created on: 24-01-12 19:40
Preview of Respiration (OCR)

First 204 words of the document:

Sameer Biology
Jahabarali
Unit 4 Modul
e 1 Communi
cat
ion
and
H omeost
asi
s
Respiration
Organisms need to respire in need of metabolic (anabolic- breaking down large molecules and catabolic-
making large molecules) processes which include:
Active transport- moving molecules against the concentration gradient
Secretion- exocytosis of large molecules made in cells
Endocytosis- bulk movement of large molecules into the cell
Replication of DNA and synthesis of organelles
Movement- microtubules
Activation of chemicals
ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is the universal energy currency and provides an immediate source of energy
by:
ATP has 3 phosphate groups
Each phosphate bonds have chemical potential energy
When ATP is hydrolysed(adding water to break bonds) it is converted to ADP + Pi (phosphate)
AMP + Pi Adenosine + Pi
Each hydrolysis reaction to break a phosphate bond releases energy (P-P bond 30.6 kJ/ mol, P-
Ribose bond 14.2 kJ/ mol)
This energy is used to do work (metabolic process)
Than Adenosine compound is recycled by condensation reaction to form ATP using the energy from
respiration of respiratory substrates (organic substances that can be respired)

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

Sameer Biology
Jahabarali
Unit 4 Modul
e 1 Communi
cat
ion
and
H omeost
asi
s
Coenzymes are used to assist enzyme during redox reaction (oxidation and reduction). During respiration
NAD is used carry hydrogen in various stages and CoA to carry Acetyl to the Kreb cycle.
Glycolysis is the first stage of aerobic and anaerobic respiration that takes place in the cytoplasm. It is a
pathway that converts glucose to Pyruvate, reduce 2 NAD and to produce a net gain of 2 ATP.…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

Sameer Biology
Jahabarali
Unit 4 Modul
e 1 Communi
cat
ion
and
H omeost
asi
s
2 ATP is formed at substrate level phosphorylation
The mitochondrion is the site of the link reaction, krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. The
Mitochondrion organelle is structured to perform its function by:
5-1.0 m in diameter and 2-10 m long altering shape and location to where it is needed.…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

Sameer Biology
Jahabarali
Unit 4 Modul
e 1 Communi
cat
ion
and
H omeost
asi
s
o Builds proton gradient makes a source of potential energy
Embedded in the membrane are ATP synthase which is:
o A Stalked particles enzyme
o With a proton channel that permits protons to diffuse from the intermembrane space to the
matrix (chemiosmosis)
o An axle attached to a head piece that rotates using the motive force of the flow of proton
o The rotation of the head piece allows…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

Sameer Biology
Jahabarali
Unit 4 Modul
e 1 Communi
cat
ion
and
H omeost
asi
s
The Kreb cycle the next stage that takes place in the matrix, where conversion of Acetate citrate
oxaloacetate Acetate is continuously being reconverted to reduce NAD, FAD and produce substrate level
phosphorylation by:
Acetate is offloaded by CoA
Acetate joins with oxaloacetate to form citrate
Citrate is decarboxylated, dehydrogenated and produces substrate level phosphorylation to form
Oxaloacetate again.…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

Sameer Biology
Jahabarali
Unit 4 Modul
e 1 Communi
cat
ion
and
H omeost
asi
s
Chemiosmosis
o Energy released by the flow of electron
o Coenzymes in the protein complexes (I, II, IV) use the energy to pump protons from the matrix into
the intermembrane space
o A build up of proton, pH and electrochemical gradient occurs to produce potential energy
o Protons flow through the proton channel in the ATP synthase enzyme.…read more

Page 7

Preview of page 7

Here's a taster:

Sameer Biology
Jahabarali
Unit 4 Modul
e 1 Communi
cat
ion
and
H omeost
asi
s
Yeast anaerobic respiration use alcohol fermentation where:
Pyruvate is decarboxylated to form ethanol
NADH is donates 2 hydrogens to (becomes oxidised)
Ethanal accepts the hydrogen to form ethanol
NAD returns to glycolysis stage and accepts hydrogen from glucose molecules
Glycolysis continues to produce a net gain of 2 ATP at substrate level phosphorylation
Respiratory substrates are organic substance that can be used for respiration.…read more

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all resources »