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Unit 4 Modul
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Respiration
Organisms need to respire in need of metabolic (anabolic- breaking down large molecules and catabolic-
making large molecules) processes which include:

Active transport- moving molecules against the concentration gradient
Secretion- exocytosis of large…

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Coenzymes are used to assist enzyme during redox reaction (oxidation and reduction). During respiration
NAD is used carry hydrogen in various stages and CoA to carry Acetyl to the Kreb cycle.




Glycolysis is the…

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2 ATP is formed at substrate level phosphorylation




The mitochondrion is the site of the link reaction, krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. The
Mitochondrion organelle is structured to perform its function by:

5-1.0 m…

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o Builds proton gradient makes a source of potential energy
Embedded in the membrane are ATP synthase which is:
o A Stalked particles enzyme
o With a proton channel that permits protons to diffuse…

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The Kreb cycle the next stage that takes place in the matrix, where conversion of Acetate citrate
oxaloacetate Acetate is continuously being reconverted to reduce NAD, FAD and produce substrate level
phosphorylation by:

Acetate…

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Chemiosmosis
o Energy released by the flow of electron
o Coenzymes in the protein complexes (I, II, IV) use the energy to pump protons from the matrix into
the intermembrane space
o A build…

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Yeast anaerobic respiration use alcohol fermentation where:

Pyruvate is decarboxylated to form ethanol
NADH is donates 2 hydrogens to (becomes oxidised)
Ethanal accepts the hydrogen to form ethanol
NAD returns to glycolysis stage and…

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