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Page 1

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Research methods!
Quantitative data: information collected in a
course of a research study that is in a quantified
/numerical form
Qualitative data: information collected in the
course of research study that is non-numerical,
someone's opinion

Experimental methods
In order to find cause-and-effect relationships we
must use experimental methods
Experiment research…

Page 2

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control over IV and to eliminate/control
confounding variables
The procedures can be easily repeated
It is easier to control EV and other
Consent ­ the researcher can gain full
consent at beginning of experiment
High levels of control make it less like a
real-life situation
Demand characteristics ­ the…

Page 3

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reduction of demand characteristics as Ps
may be unaware that they are taking part
in a study
low control over IV and DV but also
surrounding people who might but in
convos or their presence alone could
effect results less control over EV
the results can't be generalised to other…

Page 4

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Reduction of demand characteristics as P
is unaware that they are taking part in an
The experimenter doesn't intervene
directly in the research situation
Loss of control as IV is not directly
controlled by investigator
Non-experimental investigations in psychology:-
Investigations using correlational analysis ­ the
extent to which 2…

Page 5

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This allows for the measurement of many
variables (environmental factors)and the
relationships between them
Not a proper research method ­ who's to say
it is correct or that variables are connected in
some way??
It is impossible to establish cause and effect
by using this correlational analysis; it can only…

Page 6

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kids have become accustomed to such a room,
their behaviour too could be considered natural.
Observers can choose whether they remain
disclosed Ps are aware or undisclosed Ps are
Participant observation = observer actually
joins group of people being studied
Non-participant observation = observer
remains external form those being…

Page 7

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Now consent gained at start

Questionnaire Surveys ­ it is an organised form
of gathering data from large numbers of people. It
can be used in a wide range of research situations.
These surveys can be filled in face to face, by post,
printed in newspapers, telephone, internet etc.

Page 8

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V quick and large amounts of info can be
collected cheaply from lots of people in a short
Easy to circulate
Can be v good when combined with interview as
u get qualitative info and quantitative info!
Response rates are low
Problems with the wording of the Qs as…

Page 9

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Only a certain type of person replies, pensioners
who have spare time
If in a newspaper then only certain types of
people are prone to buy such a newspaper so
not representational
Respondent could lie

Interviews ­ common way of carrying out
The different types of interview
(1) Non…

Page 10

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(5) Clinical Interview = same Qs but chance of
follow up Qs depending on answers
(6) Fully Structured Interview = standards Qs fixed
order answers from choice, specific answers
and Qs
Issues can be explored in more depth
Complex issues can be investigated
Interviews can identify aspects of behaviour


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