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Page 1

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The Formation of Relationships

AO1 Intro:
A relationship is an encounter with another person or with other people that
endure through time.
Two different theories; reward/need satisfaction theory and the similarity
model.

AO1 Reward/Need Satisfactory Theory:
Byrne and Clore et al 1970
Proposes that we seek positive stimuli and avoid…

Page 2

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Speakman et al. (2007) found that people choose partners with similar
levels of body fat.
Reductionist ­ doesn't take into account reward/need theory.


The Maintenance of Relationships

AO1 Intro:
A relationship is an encounter with another person or with other people that
endures through time.
Two different theories; social exchange…

Page 3

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Culture bias ­ can't be generalised to non-western cultures.
Steil and Weltman (1991) found men and woman judge equity differently.
Deterministic. If the relationship isn't perceived as equate




The Breakdown of Relationships

Intro:
A relationship is an encounter with another person or with other people that
endure through time.
Duck…

Page 4

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4. Grave-dressing process ­ partners organize past relationship life.
Publicise their own account of breakup and what if any nature of
relationship with ex partner.
5. Resurrection process ­ preparation for the future.

AO2 Studies and Evaluation:
Tashiro and Frazier (2003) support for resurrection process. Found that
undergraduates reported personal…

Page 5

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Buss (1989) support for differences in long-term mating preferences.
Found that women find resources attractive. Men are more interested in the
physical appearance of women. Men prefer younger women.
Lacks validity ­ gives indication of preferences rather than being real life.
Penton-Voak et al. (1999) found that women choose a…

Page 6

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Anderson (1999) found that men did not discriminate between children
who were biologically theirs and those who were not.
Rowe (2002) suggested evolutionary approaches are reductionist. Males
paternal investment depends on social and personal factors.




The Influence of Childhood on Adult Relationships

Intro:
A relationship is an encounter with another…

Page 7

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Longitudinal study ­ can see changes in development
Fraley (1998) from a meta-analysis found a link between early attachment
type and later relationships.
However... it could be that the current relationship determines the
attachment type.
Reductionist ­ doesn't take into account evolutionary theory ­ survival and
reproduction.

AO1 Interactions with…

Page 8

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Epstein (2002) found low divorce rates for non-voluntary marriages and
partners claim to have fallen in love.
Myers et al. (2005) found no difference in happiness between arranged
marriages in India and non-arranged marriages in the US
In China noticeable increase in love matches and the process of families
choosing…

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