essay plan for the evolutionary explanations into aggression including infidelity and jealousy

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Essay plan aggression
Evolutinary explantions for aggression including jealousy and infidelity
Natural selection
Adaptive- helps survival
Competition- for resources
Attractive- aggressive males
Rivals- removes rivals for resources/mates
Innate- aggressive genes
Next generation- innate genes make it more likely to be passed on
Spriggs hypothesis- aggressive males survive (less predators/more resources),
females adapt to male aggression to gain resources (responsive)- eventually
embedded into genes
Smutts- male chimps aggressive towards females to force sex/ encourage
loyalty. Females form supportive groups- Spriggs hypothesis. Other primates
(vervet monkeys) don't show this behaviour- theory doesn't apply to all animals, if
it was due to evolution all animals should behave the same. Issues generalising to
Yanomano tribe- males are aggressive- frequently rape women from other
villages and beat women suspected of adultery. Females form protective groups.
Aka tribe- males never been observed being aggressive towards females
Role of jealousy/infidelity
Male aggression due to parental uncertainty and risk of cuckoldry- try to ensure
genes survive into next generation. Buss found mate retention strategies of direct
guarding (frogs) and negative inducements (chimps) to reduce infidelity in females.
Female jealousy result of fear of losing resources
Wilson- women in jealous relationships more likely to suffer from domestic
violence/physical injury jealousy linked to aggression
Shackleford- questionnaires for males and females on mate retention strategies-
found link between direct guarding/negative inducements and aggression mate
retention strategies linked to aggression doesn't show jealousy is due to getting
genes into next generation.
General evaluation

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Essay plan aggression
Evolutionary explanation is sexist- reinforces gender stereotypes that women
are dependent on men. Natural selection theory formed in 1800's where women
were dependent on men often- could be reason for the stereotype- theory is
outdated ­many single mothers/women in highly paid careers.
Evidence based on primitive tribes/animals as hominids are extinct so can't be
directly tested. Issues assuming modern human behaviour is the same as primitive
human's behaviour
Reductionist- all behaviour due to need to survive/reproduce- can't be linked to
genes.…read more


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